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The biomass of white putrefaction basidiomycetous fungi, Lentinus strigosus had the ability to surface assimilation of reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

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1. Introduction

Current, man-made dyes are used in a assortment of industries such as fabric, paper, printing, pharmaceutical, leather, nutrient and cosmetics ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? thesis a?ˆa??a?·a??a?­a?‡a??a?µa??a?‰a?­a?? ) The biomass of white putrefaction basidiomycetous fungi, Lentinus strigosus had the ability to surface assimilation of reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

2. Material and methods

2.1. Chemicals

Three dyes were used studied include Remazol Brilliant Blue R ( RBBR ) and Remazol Black B ( RB5 ) were obtained from Dystar Thai Company Limited in Thailand. Stock solution were prepared in distilled H2O by thining 1.0 g l-1 of each dyes

2.2. Fungal discoloration, media and civilization status

Lentinus strigosus was obtained from Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative in Thailand. Stock civilization was maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar ( PDA ) at 4 & A ; deg ; C until usage. The readying of mycelium was grown on fresh PDA and incubated at room temperature ( 28 – 30 & A ; deg ; C ) . To readying of fungous biomass in 100 milliliters Potato Dextrose Broth ( PDB ) with 10 agar stoppers ( & A ; Oslash ; 5 millimeter from the border of a 5-day-old agar civilization ) of Lentinus strigosus and incubated at room temperature ( 28 – 30 & A ; deg ; C ) . After 7 yearss of cultivation, they were harvested and washed three times with distilled H2O for used as life biomass. White dead biomass through autoclaved at 121 & A ; deg ; C and 1 standard pressure for 20 min. This was ready to be used for farther experiments.

( a ) ( B )

Fig. 1. Chemical construction: ( a ) Remazol Brilliant Blue R ( RBBR ) ; ( B ) Remazol Black B ( RB5 )

2.3. Biosorption and dynamicss surveies

The 100 milliliter of 50 mg l-1 each dyes solution contained with 1 g wet weight of life or dead fungous biomass in 250 milliliters Elermyer flask. The mixtures solution were incubated at 30 & A ; deg ; C and agitating on rotary shaker at 150 revolutions per minute for 6 H to guarantee equilibrium. The biomass removed from the dyes solution by centrifugation at 5000 revolutions per minute for 5 min. Residual concentration of dyes was determined spectrophotometerically ( Jusco V-530 UV/VIS spectrophotometer ) at 592 and 597 for RBBR and RB5 severally. The consequence of pH on dyes surface assimilation was determined with adjust the mixtures at pH values from 2 – 8 with 1 M NaOH or HCl. The consequence of temperature was incubated under different temperature scope between 20 – 60 & A ; deg ; C with 10 & A ; deg ; C increase. The consequence of contact clip on biomass surface assimilation determined was incubated the mixtures for 15 – 360 min. The consequence of initial dyes concentration determined was tested utilizing 50 – 1000 mg l-1 each dyes solution. The experiments were performed in triplicate for each mixture.

2.4 Adsorption isotherms

The sum of dyes adsorbed per unit life or dead biomass ( mg dyes/g biomass biosorbent ) was determined utilizing the undermentioned look ( 1 )

qeq = ( 1 )

where qeq is the dyes uptake ( mg dyes/g biomass weight of life or dead biomass ) ; V is the volume of dyes solution ( milliliter ) ; Ci is the initial concentration of dyes in the solution ( mg l-1 ) ; C is the residuary concentration of in the solution at any clip and M is the biomass weight of life or dead biomass.

The studied efficiency of surface assimilation were used Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theoretical accounts ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Kinetic and equilibrium syudies on the biosorption of reactive black 5 dye by Aspergillus foetidus a??a?? & A ; deg ; Biosorption of reactive red-120 dye from aqueous solution by native and modified fungus biomass readyings of Lentinus sajor-caju ) for the evalution of the surface assimilation informations. The Langmuir isotherm is based on the homogenous surface and monolayer surface assimilation, and is presented by the undermentioned equation ( 2 )

= ( 2 )

where qeq and qmax are the equilibrium and maximal uptake capacities ( mg g-1 biosorpbent ) ; Ceq is the equilibrium concentration ( mg l-1 solution ) ; B is the equilibrium invariable ( fifty mg-1 )

The Freundlich isotherm theoretical account is base on heterogenous surface and multilayer surface assimilation, and is presented by the undermentioned equation ( 3 )

= ( 3 )

where KF and Ns are the Freundlich contants characteristic of the system.

The pseudo-first-order Largergren and the pseudo-second order biosorption procedure ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Biosorption of bromophenol blue from aqueous solutions by rhizopus stolonifer biomass & A ; gt ; & A ; gt ; & A ; gt ; & A ; gt ; a?ˆa?›a??a?”a?„a?›a?”a??a?‚a?‰a??a?‡a?«a??a?±a?‡ ref a??a??a?‰a?§a?™a??a??a??a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a?µa??-a?µ ) were applied to experimental informations.

The first-order rate look of Largergren is showed as following equation ( 4 )

log ( qeq – Q ) = logqeq – k1, adt/2.303 ( 4 )

where Q is the sum of adsorbed dye on the biosorbent at clip T, and k1, adt is the rate invariable to Largergren first-order biosorption.

The pseudo second-order kinetic rate equation is showed as following equation ( 5 )

t/q = 1/ ( K2, adq2eq ) + t/qeq ( 5 )

where K2, ad is the rate contant of second-order biosorption.

The pseudo first-order condiders the rate of business of surface assimilation sites to be relative to the figure of uncupation sites. A consecutive line of log ( qe -qt ) versus T indicates. In a true first-order procedure log Q should by equal to the intercept of a secret plan of log ( qe -qt ) against t. The second-order reaction rate equilibrium invariable. A secret plan of t/qeq versus T should give a additive relationship for the pertinence of the second-order kinetic.

3. Resut and treatment

3.1. Consequence of the pH on the Biosorption Capacity

The pH is an of import parametric quantity for the biosorption procedure. It will impact the between ionisation position of the dyes molecule and the surface of fungous biomass in solution ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Immobilization of trichoderma viride for enhanced methylene bluish biosorption: Batch and column surveies a??a?? & A ; deg ; Biosorption of reactive dye by loofa sponge-immobilized funfal biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ) .Therefore, the consequence of pH on dyes surface assimilation was investigated at 2.0 – 8.0. Fig. 2 showed that the consequence of pH on dye biosorption consumption utilizing unrecorded and dead biomass. The maximal biosorption of RBBR and RB5 was found as 46.01 ± 0.39 and 43.70 ± 2.01 mg g-1 for unrecorded fungous biomass and 44.36 ± 0.37 and 49.25 ± 0.08 mg g-1 for dead fungous biomass at pH 2.0 and significantly decreased by increasing the pH values.

Fig. 2. Consequence of the pH on the biosorption capacity by biomass of L. strigosus. 50 mg l-1 dyes ; T = 30 & A ; deg ; C ; 150 revolutions per minute ; 6 H.

When sing the construction of the dyes were RBBR and RB5 ( Fig. 1 ) are sulfonate group in the molecular construction, which have negative charges in aqueous solution. While the acidic status, the fungous biomass will hold a net positive charge due to protonation of functional group on cell wall such as aminoalkane, carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfates and phosphates was responsible for interacting with the dyes molecule ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Biosorption of Cr by teritomyces clypeatus a??a?? & A ; deg ; A comparision survey on biosroption features of certain Fungis for bromophenol bluish dye. ) . When comparing physical characterstics of the fungous biomass was found that the dead biomass that can adsorped of the RBBR and RB5 better than the unrecorded biomass, may be the dead biomass can endure rupture, and denateration of the cell wall can let free entree to cell wall binding sites. ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Two and three-parameter isothermal mold for liquid-phase sorption of procion Blue H-B by inactive mycelia biomass of Panus fulvus ) Harmonizing to O’Mahony et Al. ( a?­a?‰a??a?‡a?­a??a?‡a??a??a?? Reactive dye biosorption by Rhizopus arrhizus biomass ) reported utilizing that Rhizaous arrhizus biomass for biosorption of reactive dyes and the maximal dyes biosorption was at pH 2.0.

3.2 Effect of Time on the Biosorption capacity

The consequence of temperature on the biosorption of RBBR and RB5 by unrecorded and dead fungi biomass at equilibrium was investigated at the temperature scope between 20 – 60 & A ; deg ; C with 10 & A ; deg ; C increase, at the initial dyes concentration of 50 mg l-1, pH 2.0 ( Fig. 3. ) In the instance of surface assimilation for RBBR and RB5 by unrecorded Fungis biomass was noted to heighten to increase with the addition in temperature up to 60 & A ; deg ; C was found that. When sing in the instance of surface assimilation the dyes by dead fungous biomass was noted to die with the farther addition in temperature.

Fig. 3. Consequence of temperature on the equilibrium sorption capacity of unrecorded and dead fungous biomass for RBBR and RB5 from 100 milligrams l-1 dyes solution at pH 2.0, was assorted with each biosorbent at 150 revolutions per minute on rotary shaker

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