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Land grain was one of civilised adult male ‘s first nutrients. Ancient methods of grinding can be traced to the Far East, Egypt and Rome. Equally early as 6,700 B.C. , adult male land grains with stones. Water Millss did non look until 85 B.C. in Asia Minor. Windmills appeared between 1180 and 1190 A.D. in Syria, France and England.

In Libya and the states of the southern Mediterranean Region, staff of life has ever been considered as the basic nutrient of pick. accordingly Libya imports 95 % of the flour needed for its baking industry from European states. Preliminary surveies showed that most of imported flour been extremely deteriorated. This fact revealed that:

  1. High free fatso acids has been found in most parches of flour imported from abroad.
  2. Most of imported flour is less inform of wheat gluten ( weak flour – less than 30 % ) . Incomparable to what has been accepted by Libyan quality board ( more than 30 % for wet gluten ) .
  3. Most of imported flour in medium in term of gluten strength which is non suited for staff of life nither cookies and bars production.
  4. Because of failing of flour, most of bakers utilizing chemical humanitarians which is most of its in out of order due to wellness concern.
  5. We noticed that high measure of flour imported from abroad, which greater than to be needed for local user.
  6. The excess flour been stored in the local shop which is non proper one because of deficiency of chilling installations. We noticed that this flour has been deteriorated within three months, chiefly in the summer clip. Besides immense sum of insect which more than acceptable has been noticed in the stored flour.
  7. The quality of local wheat assortments is non studied good chiefly in term of genotype and location affects to predect its quality facet to be used in baking industries.

It is of import to analyze the quality of the plantain flour to find its suitableness for usage as composite flour. The flour quality can be assessed by physical and chemical analysis every bit good as by baking trials. Many workers have studied the physical and baking belongingss of other starchy basics like manioc, taro and cocoyam. Idowu et Al. [ 5 ] studied the usage of cocoyam flour as composite with wheat flour in staff of life and biscuit production. They found that up to 10 % and 80 % permutation with cocoyam flour produced acceptable staff of lifes and biscuit, severally.

The aims of this survey is to measure:

  1. Study the chemical composing.
  2. Gluten finding ( Wet and Dry ) .
  3. Amylase activity.
  4. Flour H2O soaking up, dough stableness, dough failing.
  5. Resistance to extension, extensibility and ratio figure.
  6. Gelatinization temp. maximal viscousness.
  7. mensurating the staff of life volume for prepared, loaf staff of life.
  8. Centripetal rating for the staff of life made from imported flour and local flours.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Five kilogrammes ( 5kg ) of “ False Horn ” matured green plantain ( Musa paradisiaca ) were procured from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, ( IITA ) , Onne, near Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The wheat flour used was white infusion of polished grain imports from USA by the Nigerian Flour Mills. Both difficult and soft wheat flours were provided for staff of life and biscuit preparations severally. All other baking ingredients were supplied by the Nigerian Flour Mills Plc, Port Harcourt and the baking procedure was done at their mill.

Sample Preparation

Plantain caputs were cut into separate Bunches which were later defingered. The fingers were washed, peeled, cut into thin pieces of 2 centimeters thick and blanched in 1.25 % NaHS03 solution at 80A°C for 5 min [ 7 ] . Blanched plantain pieces sere drained and dehydrated in a Thelco air-recirculating oven at 60A°C for 24 hours. Dried plantain pieces were milled into flour in a Retch Muhle 2880 Hammer factory. Flour obtained were sifted through a 250 Aµm aperture screen and packed in a two-ply medium denseness ( 0.926 – 0.949 g/cc ) polyethylene bag.

Bread and biscuit devising

Composite flour samples incorporating wheat and plantain flours were formulated at 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 % ( w/w ) degree of wheat flour permutations for staff of life devising and for biscuits at 0, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 % ( w/w ) degrees.

Proximate Composition

Proximate analyses of the samples will transport out utilizing official AOAC methods [ 8 ] for wet ( 14.004 ) , rough fat ( 14.081 ) , rough fibre ( 7.0006 ) , ash ( 14.006 ) and rough protein ( 47.021 ) . A N to protein transition factor of 6.25 was used. Carbohydrate will cipher by difference.

Functional Properties

Water and oil soaking up capacity: Water and oil soaking up belongingss of the composite flour were determined following methods of Sathe et Al. [ 9 ] . Briefly, flour sample ( 2 g ) was assorted with 20 milliliters distilled H2O for H2O soaking up and 20 milliliter of oil for oil soaking up in a Moulinex liquidizer ( Model dePC 3, France ) at high velocity for 30 ( s ) . Samples were so allowed to stand at 30A°C for 30 min so centrifriged at 10,000rpm for 30 min. The volume of supernatant in a calibrated cylinder was noted. Density of H2O was taken to be 1g/ml and that of oil was determined to be 0.93 g/ml. Means of triplicate findings were reported. Foaming capacity and stableness were studied harmonizing to the methods described by Desphande et Al. [ 10 ] . For stableness, the flour sample ( 0.5g ) was blended for 30 min in distilled H2O ( 40 milliliter ) at top seed in a Moulinex liquidizer. The whipped mixture was transferred into a 100 milliliter graduated cylinder. The liquidizer was rinsed with 10 milliliters distilled H2O which was so gently added to the graduated cylinder. Foam volume in the cylinder were recorded per sample after 30 min standing. Triplicate measurings were made for each sample and average values recorded.

Emulsion capacity and stableness

A flour sample ( 2g ) and distilled H2O ( 100ml ) were blended for 30 ( s ) in a Moulinex liquidizer ( Model depC 3, France ) at high velocity ( ca.100rpm ) . After complete scattering, insignificant oil was added from a burette in watercourses of about 5 milliliter. Blending continued until there was separation into two beds. Emulsification findings were carried out at 30A°C and expressed as gms of oil emulsified by 1g flour. Emulsion stableness was studied following the methods described by Okezie and Bello [ 11 ] . Briefly, sample ( 4 g ) was dispersed in distilled H2O ( 100 milliliter ) , so 100 milliliter of insignificant oil was added at the rate of 12.5 milliliters per ( s ) while intermixing. Each sample was blended in a Moulinex liquidizer at high velocity for extra 60 sec. and transferred into a 250 milliliter graduated cylinder volumetric alterations in froth, oil and aqueous beds were recorded after 3 hour. Triplicate measurings were made and mean consequences taken.

Bulk Density

Bulk densenesss of samples were determined by weighing the sample ( 50 g ) into 100 milliliter graduated cylinder, tapping cylinders 10 times against the thenar of the manus and showing the concluding volumes as g/cc.

Rheologic Determinations

Rheologic belongingss of dough from the blends were determined utilizing an alveograph ( Chopin, Model MA 82, France ) utilizing criterion recommended alveograph processs [ 12, 13 ] . Flour blends ( 250g ) was kneaded with H2O ( 500ml ) incorporating 25 % NaCl in the alveograph sociable. A mixing clip of 8 min. at 29A°C and 20 min remainder period were the status used. From alveograms obtained, the undermentioned rheological parametric quantities of dough were calculated ;

  1. the tallness of curve, R ( millimeter ) which measured the force per unit area applied during rising prices and indicated the opposition of dough to distortion.
  2. the length of the curve, L ( millimeter ) , which measured the extensibility of the dough.
  3. mechanical work for distortion, W, ( 10-4 joules/g ) which measured the overall strength of gluten height/length rate of the curve.
  4. height/length ratio of curve, R/L.

Composite flours were so used to fix staff of life and biscuits utilizing standard formulas ( Table 1 ) . For bread-making, a alteration of the consecutive dough method [ 14 ] was used. The ingredients, based on a 350 g wheat flour or wheat-plantain composite flour were assorted in a Hobart N-50 sociable fitted to a dough hook for 1 min at No. 1 velocity, 1 min at No. 2 velocity and the remainder of the commixture clip at No. 3 velocity. Two baking responses viz. , dough managing belongingss and loaf volume ( rapeseed method as modified by Giami et Al. [ 15 ] were monitored as map of added H2O and % plantain flour in the composite while blending for 6 mins. Following a 90 minute agitation clip, doughs were punched, moulded, scaled to 500 g and proofed for 2 hour, which gave good loaf volumes for wheat flour and optimal volumes for blends. Baking was at 204A°C for 30 min. Duplicate loaves were baked for each permutation degree. Loaf of breads were allowed to chill on chromium steel steel wire at room temperature so placed in plastic bags for centripetal rating on the 2nd twenty-four hours. For biscuit devising, the sheeting method described by Adeyemi and Omolaye [ 16 ] was used.

Evaluation of Bread Characteristics

Bread features or baking qualities were evaluated by mensurating the loaf volume, specific loaf volume, the oven by spring and the organoleptic features. Loaf volume was measured 50 proceedingss after loaves were removed from the oven by utilizing the rapeseed supplanting method as modified by Giami et Al. [ 15 ] . Briefly, loaf volume was measured by seed supplanting utilizing pearled barley in topographic point of rapeseed. A box of fixed dimensions ( 24.00 x 15.70 ten 18.95 centimeter ) of internal volume 7140 cm3 was put in a tray, half filled with pearled barley, shaken smartly 4 times, so filled till somewhat overfilled, so that overspill fell into the tray. The box was shaken once more twice, so a consecutive border ( or regulation ) was used to press across the top of the box one time to give a degree surface. The seeds were decanted from the box into a receptacle and weighed. The process was repeated three times and the average value for seed weight was noted ( B g ) . A weighed loaf was placed in the box and weighed seeds ( 4500 g ) were used to make full the box and leveled off as earlier. The overspill was weighed and from the weight obtained the weight of seeds around the loaf and volume of seed displaced by the loaf were calculated utilizing the undermentioned equations.

Seeds displaced by loaf ( L ) = B g + overspill weight – 4500 g. Seeds displaced by loaf ( L ) = B g + overspill weight – 4500 g.

Vol. of loaf ( V ) = L ten 7140 cm3

Specific volume of loaf = V/wt ( cm3/g )

Weight of loaf samples were taken and specific loaf volume was obtained by spliting the loaf volume by its matching loaf weight. Oven spring was determined from the difference in tallness of dough before and after baking. Centripetal rating was performed 24 hours after baking to measure loaf visual aspect, crust coloring material, crumb coloring material, taste/flavour and overall acceptableness of the bread sample. The staff of life samples were sliced into pieces of unvarying thickness and served with H2O. Twenty panel members ( familiar with quality properties of local staff of life ) were indiscriminately selected from pupils and staff of the Department of Food Science and Technology, to execute the rating. Panelists evaluated bread samples on a 9 point hedonistic graduated table quality analysis [ 17 ] with 9 = liked highly, 8 = liked really much, 7 = liked, 6 = liked mildly, 5 = neither liked nor disliked, 4 = disliked mildly, 3 = disliked, 2 = disliked really much and 1 = disliked highly.

Evaluation of Biscuits

The flow and break strength were determined harmonizing to Okaka and Isieh [ 18 ] Taste panel rating of biscuit samples was likewise conducted utilizing 15 panel members selected indiscriminately ( that are familiar with quality properties of local biscuits ) to entree coloring material, crispness and gustatory sensation as quality parametric quantities. A 9-point hedonistic graduated table quality analysis as described by Larmond [ 17 ] was likewise used as described above.

Statistical Analysis

Analysis for important differences in the consequences obtained were performed by utilizing the F-test and the least important Difference Test ( LSD ) [ 19 ] .

Mentions

  • Ragab, M. H. H. , 2001. Food Control Legislation. Al Maaref, Alexandria, Egypt.
  • Shalgam, M. M. and Shoelya, A. H. , 2001. Cereals or Grain Crops. Sebha Univ. Press, Sebha, Libya.
  • Mustafa, K. M. , 2000. Cereal Laboratory Methods. Al Dar Al Arabia, Cairo, Egypt.
  • C. S. James. , 1998. Analytic chemical science of Food, ( The Arabic Translation ) The Arab Centre for Arabization, Translation, Authorship & A ; Publication, Dimash, Syria.
  • Ramasamy, M. 1995. Treatise and Manual of Food Analysis. Print Graphics, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Mentions

  1. Stover RH and NW Simmonds Bananas: Tropical Agriculture series. ( 3rd edn. ) . John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 1987.
  2. Wilson CF Status of bananas and plantains in West Africa. In: Bananas and Plantain Breeding Strategies. Proceedings of International Workshop on Plantains and Bananas. Cairns, Australia, ( Perseley G.J and De Lang E.A. , eds. ) . Australian Council for International Research, 1987.
  3. FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation, Statistics series No. 95. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 2004.
  4. Olorunda AO and MA Adelusola Screening of plantain/banana cultivars for import, storage and processing features. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Genetic Improvement of bananas for opposition to disease and plagues. 7 – 9th Sept. , CIRAD, Montpellier, France. 1997.
  5. Idowu MA A Oni and BM Amusa Bread and Biscuit doing potency of some Nigerian taro cultivars. Nigerian Food Journal 1996 ; 14:1-12.
  6. Akubor PI Functional belongingss of cowpea-plantain flour blends. Proceedings: 22nd Ann NIFST Conference, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. 1998.
  7. Mepba HD, MA Akpapunam and NA Berepubo Production of Nonfermented drink from mature banana: Chemical content and centripetal features. Discovery & A ; Innovation. 1990 ; 2 ( 1 ) : 85-91.
  8. AOAC “ Official Methods of Analysis, ” 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC 1990.
  9. Sathe SK, IG Ponte, PD Rangnekar and DK Salunkhe Effects of add-on of great northern bean flour and protein dressed ores on the rheological belongingss of dough and baking quality of staff of life. Cereal Chemistry. 1981 ; 58: 97-100.
  10. Desphande SS, SK Sathe and DK Salunkhe Functional belongingss of winged bean ( Psophocarpus tetragonolobus ) proteins. Journal of Food Science. 1982 ; 47:544 – 549.
  11. Okezie BO and AB Bello Physicochemical and functional belongingss of winged-bean flour and isolate compared with soy isolate. Journal of Food Science. 1988 ; 53 ( 2 ) : 450 – 454.
  12. Khattak SD, Appolonia BL and OJ Banasik Use of the alveograph for the quality rating of difficult ruddy spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 1974 ; 51:355 – 363.
  13. Launay B, J Bure and J Braden Use of Chopin alveograph as a rheological tool. Dough distortion measurings. Cereal Chemistry. 1977 ; 54: 1042 – 1048.
  14. Ranhotra GS and RJ Loewe Breadmaking feature of wheat flour fortified with assorted commercial soy protein merchandises. Cereal Chemistry. 1974 ; 51: 629 – 634.
  15. Giami SY T Amasisi and G Ekiyor Comparison of breadmkaing belongingss of composite flour from meats of roasted and boiled African Artocarpus communis ( Treculia Africana decne ) seeds. Journal of Raw Material Research. 2004 ; 1: 16 – 25.
  16. Adeyemi LA and O Omolaye Utilization of taro flour and amylum for biscuits and coat devising. Nigerian Journal of Science. 1984 ; 18 ( 1/2 ) : 34 – 37.
  17. Larmond E Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Foods. Food Res. Inst. , Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 1977.
  18. Okaka JC and MI Isieh Development and choice rating of cow-pea wheat biscuits. Nigerian Food Journal. 1990 ; 8:56 – 62.
  19. Steele RGD and JH Torrie Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc. New York, USA. 1980.
  20. Jay JM Food saving by usage of chemicals. In: Modern Food Microbiology. D.van Nostrand Publishing Company, New York. 1990.
  21. Asiedu JJ Physicochemical alterations in plantain ( Musa paradisiaca ) during maturing and consequence of grade of ripeness on drying. Tropical Science. 1987 ; 27: 249 – 260.
  22. Zeleny L Criteria of wheat quality. In Wheat: Chemistry and Technology. Pomeranz, Y ( ed. ) ; vol III, P 14 – 49. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota. 1971.
  23. Lin MJY, Humbert ES and FW Sosulski Certain functional belongingss of sunflower repast merchandises. Journal of Food Science. 1974 ; 39: 368.
  24. Graham DE and MC Phillips The conformation of proteins at the air-water interface and their function in stabilising froth. In: “ Foams, ” ( B.J. Akers erectile dysfunction ) . Academic imperativeness, London. 1976.
  25. Misra P MS Usha and S Singh Soy-wheat flour blends: Chemical, rheological and baking features. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1991 ; 56: 992 – 998.
  26. Yue P, N Hetharachy and BL D’Appolonia Native and succinylated sunflower proteins use in staff of life devising. Journal of Food Science. 1991 ; 56: 992 – 998.
  27. Chauhan GS, RR Zillman and NAM Eskin Dough commixture and breadmaking belongingss of quinoa-wheat flour blends. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1992 ; 27: 701 – 705.
  28. Okaka JC and NN Potter Functional and storage belongingss of black-eyed pea pulverization – wheat flour blends in breadmaking. Journal of Food Science. 1977 ; 42 ( 3 ) : 828 – 833.

Wheat flour is one of the most of import nutrients in Libyan civilization, and is the specifying ingredient in most North African manners of staff of lifes and pastries.

Land grain was one of civilised adult male ‘s first nutrients. Ancient methods of grinding can be traced to the Far East, Egypt and Rome. Equally early as 6,700 B.C. , adult male land grains with stones. Water Millss did non look until 85 B.C. in Asia Minor. Windmills appeared between 1180 and 1190 A.D. in Syria, France and England.

Land grain was one of civilised adult male ‘s first nutrients. Ancient methods of grinding can be traced to the Far East, Egypt and Rome. Equally early as 6,700 B.C. , adult male land grains with stones. Water Millss did non look until 85 B.C. in Asia Minor. Windmills appeared between 1180 and 1190 A.D. in Syria, France and England.

There are six different categories of wheat: Hard Red Winter, Hard Red Spring, Soft Red Winter, Hard White, Soft White and Durum. The terminal merchandises are determined by the wheat ‘s features, particularly protein and gluten content. The harder the wheat, the higher the protein content in the flour. Soft, low protein wheats are used in bars, pastries, cookies, crackers and Oriental noodles. Hard, high protein wheats are used in staff of lifes and speedy staff of lifes. Durum is used in pasta and egg noodles. Flour is the merchandise obtained by crunching wheat meats or “ berries. ” The meat consists of three distinguishable parts: bran, the outer covering of the grain ; germ, the embryo contained inside the meat ; and endosperm, the portion of the meat that makes white flour. During milling, the three parts are separated and recombined consequently to accomplish different types of flours.

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