Site Loader


Abstractions:Wireless Local Area Networks ( WLAN ) and Wireless Personal Area Networks ( WPAN ) works under the unaccredited ISM set. Through the proposed dynamic exchanging mechanism based on perpendicular handover ( VHO ) , the WLAN and WPAN intervention is reduced and the throughput of the two systems is significantly improved at the disbursal of a little extra hold in the transportation of informations traffic. VHO aims at supplying service continuity and maximise throughput while restricting the so called “ping-pong effect” . The proposed algorithms can be applied either when WLAN and WPAN are able to interchange information every bit good as when they operate independently of one another. We propose two coexistence mechanisms basedon thepower degree of the familial signal and package traffichold scheduling. It focuses on developing Simulink theoretical accounts for the coexistence of WLAN and WPAN protocols and the public presentation rating of these theoretical accounts.

Keywords-Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE802.11g, Coexistence, perpendicular handover.

  1. Introduction

Future tendencies in the radio engineering are to portion and exchange informations between the different radio engineering. The future devices can able to portion the information over the same frequence scope with the aid of Vertical handover. The Vertical handover helps to accomplish this by exchange of informations between the different radio engineerings. So by utilizing this we can utilize the best from the engineering and we can research more characteristics such as power degree decrease informations rate increase and the addition in scope of operation. The IEEE 802.15 working group is working on the development of intervention issues of WPAN engineering. They proposed two techniques to cut down intervention caused by other engineering runing in the same frequence set ; these are collaborative coexistence mechanism and non-collaborative coexistence mechanisms. The collaborative coexistence mechanism helps in sharing the informations between two different radio nodes including WLAN and WPAN, where as the non-collaborative attack is unable to portion informations between the two radios engineerings like WLAN and WPAN. This paper is sing the attack of collaborative coexistence mechanism to portion the information between the two radio engineerings. Harmonizing to the IEEE 802.15 working group the sharing of informations take topographic point through the adaptative radio medium entree control mechanism, 2nd attack is by utilizing the package transportation entree, and 3rd attack is by utilizing the intervention decrease mechanism.

The hereafter trends in the nomadic holding equipped with the different signifiers of connectivity ( nomadic wireless interfaces ) . Therefore the power ingestion of an nomadic by these connectivity is an step issue. If the systems are able to exchange harmonizing to their demand intelligently, so devices can use the maximal sum of power.

  1. Wireless local area network

The IEEE 802.11b criterion is a specification forWireless Local Area Networks ( WLAN ) .Wi-Fi systems transmit informations in the 2.4GHz ISM set. Data is transmitted on BPSK and QPSK configurations at 11Msps. A comparatively big extra bandwidth ( or bandwidth enlargement factor ) is used for the pulse-shaping filter, Wi-Fi merchandises transmit at informations rates up to 11Mbps. Typically, Wi-Fi devices operate atdistances up to 100 metres, range tend to alter as per the conditions.

This engineering based on CSMA/CA medium entree with a positive MAC bed recognition and a retransmission mechanism that aids noisy channel extension status and eventual undetected hits. Today, WLAN standard defines high rate informations throughputs ; such as the IEEE 802.11b with a maximal throughput of 11Mbps and the IEEE 802.11g with maximal throughput of 54Mbps. Both IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g operate at the 2.4 GHz set. Typically, WLAN devices operate within 100 metres of distance scope depending on the environing environment. While, the IEEE 802.11b utilizes direct sequence spread spectrum ( DSSS ) utilizing complementary codification keying ( CCK ) transition, IEEE 802.11g is based on the extraneous frequence division multiplexing ( OFDM ) transition technique and the CCK transition for backward compatibility with 802.11b.Wi-Fi has advantage of high informations rate but at an disbursal of high power degree. Data rate of a Wi-Fi engineering increasing with advancement.Wi-Fi working on 1, 2 5.5,11 Mbps.

  1. WPAN

The IEEE 802.15 criterion is a specification forWireless personal Area Networks ( WPAN ) . Bluetooth is convenient low power radiofrequency connectivity for short-range communications. It can be used to replace the overseas telegrams linking Portable/fixed electronic devices build ad-hoc webs or supply data/voice entree points.In the 2.4GHz ISM set, the usage of spread spectrum is compulsory. Although DSSS can accomplish higher information rate ( 11Mbps for 802.11b criterion ) , FHSS has its advantage of low cost, low power, better security. FHSS besides handles near-far job better, since it will efficaciously barricade out-of-band signals. Sing the possible applications of Bluetooth, FHSS is a better solution.The skiping sequence is calculated utilizing the master’s Bluetooth Device Address. It hops to every 1MHz channel with equal chance. Its 1600hops/sec fast skiping rateis adequate to get the better of slow attenuation in most indoor environment Bluetooth devices can pass on at scopes of up to 10 metres. Bluetooth devices do non necessitate to be in direct sight of each other.This makes Bluetooth connectivity much more flexible and robust. The features of Bluetooth engineering low cost, low power, and wireless based encouraged the construct of a personal country web ( PAN ) . A PAN envelops the user in a little, nomadic bubble of connectivity that is effortlessly available at any clip. Bluetooth’s freedom from overseas telegrams and potentialubiquity make it ideal for transporting your personal web around with you.


In this attack of perpendicular handover, Bluetooth transmitter direct informations by utilizing FHSS utilizing GFSK transition when the receiving system sensitiveness is minimal at that clip transportation of informations will non take topographic point therefore at that clip attack of perpendicular handovercame to existence.For this attack of exchanging we are utilizing Friis transmittal equation which calculates the standard power degree as per the distance standards. Bluetooth holding runing scope of 10 m so beyond the 10 m distance the power degree required to have by an sender is minimal at that clip it will wait for 5 to 10 MSs to look into whether the connexion is available or non.If after waiting besides no signal received at the receiving system at that clip Wi-Fi web will get down to work. Therefore by utilizing received signal strength we can gauge the available web.

Sensitivity is the ability of the receiving system to feel the signal for the Bluetooth sensitiveness is in the scope of -50dbm ( 10pw ) . When the Bluetooth crosses the 10 m distance at that clip receiver power is below the sensitiveness of the Bluetooth receiving system at that clip the standard power degree can be used as the enabling signal for the Wi-Fi system.

If we set -50.001 dbm as a triping signal to trip the Wi-Fi transceiver can exchange from one web to another by utilizing ( RSSI ) .

RSSI ( Received Signal Strength Indicator ) is a more common name for the Signal value. It is the strength that one device is hearing another device. This value is measured in dBs from 0 ( nothing ) to -120 ( minus 120 ) .The closer this value to 0 ( nothing ) , more possible in the signal.

Figure1: VHO proposed attack

In a Bluetooth web the basic web constellation called a piconet, consists of a upper limit of eight devices and a transmittal scope of merely 10 metres. The short scope of Bluetooth arises frequent handoffs. When the Bluetooth device is connected with an AP, and moves out of scope, after a little continuance of clip, the Bluetooth stack in the device declares the nexus to be dead and shut the L2CAP connexions. At this clip the standard power cheque mechanism came into image which will look into the power degree which is set as threshold if the power degree at the receiving system is in that scope so the shift of the web take topographic point. So AWMA ( ADAPTIVE WIRELESS MEDIUM ACCESS ) and the mac bed will switch from the Bluetooth to Bluetooth nexus to Wi-Fi to Wi-Fi nexus

Receiver Signal Strength Indicator ( RSSI ) will assist to cut down the power ingestion. It compares the standard signal power to upper and lower thresholds to see if it’s within the “golden range” and notifies the sender via LMP.Receiver will ever give a feedback signal in the instance of Bluetooth informations transmittal. Bluetooth besides checks for the informations transmittal by utilizing ARQ construct if informations is non being transmitted at that clip it will wait for a period and sends signal to transmitter to resend the signal same concept we can utilize for the power degree cheque it will ever look into power degree at peculiar distance and if the power degree is really low which can be -50 dBm at that time20 dBm signal is required to enable an Wi-Fi sender.

Switch overing mechanism will work similar to the ARQ construct where the signal ever cheques for the verification of the signal. Feedback signal which is used for the verification of informations received.In the similar manner we use the RSSI signal received from the receiving system which ever correlate with the ARQ message signal if the information transmittal is non there for some period of clip at that clip it will exchange from one connectivity to an another connectivity.For exchanging from the Bluetooth low power signal to Wi-Fi signal with the high power degree the receiving system should direct the enabling signal of high power the high addition power amplifier should be used for the elaboration of signal.

Figure2: -Device Constraints

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi operates at the different signifiers of transition and spread spectrum technique. The spread spectrum technique used for the preservation of power degree every bit good as for the protection of signal from observing by other signal that is the Antigambling of the signal.Bluetooth uses the FHSS technique which is itself a secured signifier of communicating strategy where the signal ever hops on peculiar frequence and the receiving system merely knows when it is being paired with the sender device. Bluetooth transportations informations at a rate of 1 MBPS which is at a power degree of 1 mw ( 0dBm ) . When we compare this with the Wi-Fi this information rate and the power degree so the comparative survey shows that the Bluetooth is far better in compared with the power degree but restricted with the distance issue and the information rate which is relatively low.So if we consider the power issue and utilize it for the shift besides so that will be advantageous so we can able to salvage the power degree of the informations at a peculiar distance.

The other mechanism which we consider for the shift intent is the package informations exchanging.When we are directing the information on a peculiar channel so the channel ever checks the information rate or the bandwidth of operation of the signal. When the information transmittal is in the scope of 1 MBPS so it will convey the informations by utilizing a Bluetooth construct. Otherwise it will convey the informations by utilizing Wi-Fi connectivity. By utilizing this construct of exchanging mechanism we can salvage the power before get downing the information transportation manner.If we combine this two manner of exchanging so we an able to salvage the power besides and the information connectivity will be intelligent.When the user will travel from Bluetooth to the Wi-FiThe Simulink theoretical account of the Bluetooth frequence hopping and the 802.11 B theoretical account used in this system.Where the sender will direct the informations foremost by utilizing an Bluetooth construct and so it switches by utilizing an friis equation.Power decrease is intended chiefly to cut down the intervention taking topographic point with the other system which can heighten the system public presentation. The 2nd chief ground for the decrease in power degree is to better the system efficiency and power endurance of the device.

  1. Related Work

Figure 3: – Simulink Model Integration of Vertical Handover

By utilizing standard Simulink theoretical accounts

Simulation is done in Matlab /simulink environment where system uses the Bluetooth frequence skiping theoretical account and 802.11 B theoretical account of Wi-Fi.When we start the simulation so the Bluetooth will get down to run. Bluetooth maestro and slave ( s ) . Two link types have been defined:

  • Synchronous Connection-Oriented ( SCO ) nexus
  • Asynchronous Connection Less ( ACL ) nexus

The SCO nexus is a point-to-point nexus between a maestro and a individual slave in the Piconet. The maestro maintains the SCO nexus by utilizing reserved slots at regular intervals.The Asynchronous Connection Less nexus is a point-to-multipoint nexus between the maestro and all the slaves take parting on the Piconet. In the slots non reserved for the SCO nexus, the maestro can set up an ACL nexus on a per-slot footing to any slave, including the slave already engaged in a SCO nexus.

  1. Simulation RESULTS

Switch overing mechanism consider for the system usingfriis equation which we can implement in Simulink by imitating distance by utilizing the expression of

Speed for a normal human being is consider to be 0.125m/s. Addition of the sender and receiving system is taken as 5 dubnium transmit power of an category 3 Bluetooth utilizing a power of 1 mw ( 0dbm ) .wavelength is changing from 2.4ghz to per this the wavelength will change from 0.125m to.120m.the exchanging mechanism is as shown below

Figure 4: -Simulink Model of Algorithmof Switching mechanism

Therefore as distance increases the standard power will travel down and we have to see the value at a distance of 10 m calculated from friis equation which is to be -50dbm.Thus the received spectrum with regard to distance is as shown below.The fig 5 stand foring the standard spectrum of the receiving system of Bluetooth and the standard power which shows that the -25dbm is the standard power which we can acquire at a distance of 1 m this power is sufficient for the information this clip of the informations transfer the enabling of the Wi-Fi is non being required and the information transportation besides being held.

Figure 5: -Simulink Model of Operational Bluetooth

At distance of 10M the power degree of the Bluetooth receiving system will travel down which is shown in fig 6.this shows that at a power degree of -50dbm that is the -70dbW power the perpendicular handover is being possible. Thus the standard power calculated from the Bluetooth RSSI signal is being used as an enabling signal and therefore the Wi-Fi enabling signal will be send and the staying information is being transferred by utilizing an Wi-Fi which requires the power degree of -20dBm.This power elaboration take topographic point by utilizing an amplifier with addition of 70dbm or 40dBw.Thus the informations which can be able to reassign by utilizing an Bluetooth with an information rate of 1 MBPS is being transmitted.The power degree required to convey the information is besides really less. So it will assist to conserve the power and heighten the battery life of a nomadic device.

Figure 6: -Simulink theoretical account of operational Wi-Fi

VII. Decision

In this paper the IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth Frequency Hopping theoretical account in Math worksMatlab/Simulink has been provided. As a chief consequence from simulations, Bluetooth frequence skiping theoretical account will supply an RSSI signal to the IEEE 802.11b criterion when compulsory status of perpendicular handover will come.

H:sagarsagar pendrive data 19022014DIAGRAMSSSVHO AND HHO.JPG

The standard power degree will be responsible for the Wi Fito bend on.This will in bend helps to conserve the power of device every bit good as smaller intervention to the IEEE 802.11b signal than Bluetooth 1 M bit/s informations rate. Vertical handover scenario for the other connectivity’s can be considered for the future attack in which every connectivity be able to pass on by utilizing a perpendicular handover scenario


[ 1 ] J.M. Peha, “Wireless Communications and Coexistence for Smart Environments, ”IEEE Personal Communications Magazine” , pp. 66–68, October 2000

[ 2 ] TizianoInzerilli, Anna Maria Vegni “a reactive perpendicular handover attack for Wi-Fi-UMTS dual-mode terminals”Consumer Electronicss, 2008. ISCE 2008. IEEE International Symposium

[ 3 ] Carla F. Chiasserini and Ramesh R. Rao, “Coexistence mechanisms for intervention extenuation between IEEE 802.11 wlansand bluetooth” IEEE INFOCOM 2002

[ 4 ] Jan Mikulka, StanislavHanus, “Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b/gcoexistence simulation” Radio technology, VOL. 17, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008

[ 5 ] Roberto Cristi, “Wireless Communications with Matlab and Simulink: IEEE802.16 ( WiMax ) Physical Layer”

[ 6 ] JaniPuttonen* , Gabor Fekete* , JukkaMakela* , “Using nexus bed information for bettering perpendicular handovers” 2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications

[ 7 ] KaoutharSethom, HossamAfifi, “Requirements and version solutions for transparent handover between wi-fi and Bluetooth” IEEE Communications Society 0-7803-8533-0/04/ ( degree Celsius ) 2004 IEEE

[ 8 ] HongfengWang, “Overview of Bluetooth technology” July 3, 2001

[ 9 ] “Implementation of ieee 802.11p physical bed theoretical account in Simulink”Publication Database of the Vienna University of Technology

[ 10 ] Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control ( MAC ) and Physical Layer ( PHY ) Specifications for High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks ( WPANs )

[ 11 ] A. M. Vegni, M. Carli, A. Neri, and G. Ragosa, “QoS-basedVertical Handover in IEEE 802.21 networks” , Proc. on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communication, WPMC 2007, Jaipur, India, 4-6 Dec. 2007.

Writers Bio:

Sagar Shriram Salwereceived the Bachelor of Technology grades in Electronicss and Telecommunication from the Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Aurangabad, in 2010. He is prosecuting Master of Technology in Radar & A ; Communication from Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune Maharashtra. His current countries of involvement include Communication and radio detection and ranging applications.

Dr. K. Krishna Naikreceived graduation grade in Electronics & A ; Communication Engineering from Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur in 2002, Post graduation from Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad in 2004 and doctorial grade from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur, Anantapur in 2010. Presently he is working as an Assistant Professor in Electronics Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune. His current countries of involvement include Electronic Warfare Applications, Software Defined Radio, Wireless Networks, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.

Post Author: admin