Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a possible phytosanitary step that could be an alternate to current quarantine interventions. Doses of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy ( Grays ) were used to enlighten three different life phases ( eggs, immatures, and grownups ) of Planococcus minor ( Maskell ) , concentrating on females due to its parthenogeny ability, with an purpose to happen the most tolerant phase and the most optimal dosage to command P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the beginning of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150 – 250 Gy has a important consequence on all life phases of P. child, diminishing its endurance rate, per centum grownup reproduction, oviposition and birthrate rate. The grownup was the most tolerant life phase in both mortality and birthrate rate. All the different irradiated mark life phase groups oviposited eggs but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dose of 150 to 250 Gy.
KEYWORDS: Planococcus child, Ionizing radiation, Quarantine
Planococcus child ( Maskell ) ( Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae ) is a important plague of more than 250 host workss in the Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, and Oriental parts ( Williams 1985, Ben-Dov 1994, USDA 2000, CAB 2003 ) . P. child is a phloem feeder, and in general this may do decreased output, reduced works or fruit quality, stunting, stain and defoliation. Indirect or secondary harm is caused by sooty cast growing on honeydew produced by this mealy bug. Important works viruses may besides be vectored by P. child ( Williams 1985, Cox 1989 ) .
Ionizing radiation has been recognized as an option to methyl bromide for handling agricultural merchandises in order to get the better of quarantine barriers in trade ( FAO 2003 ) . Several writers have presented reappraisals of this topic in the last two decennaries ( Burditt 1994, Nation and Burditt 1994, Hallman 1998, 2000, 2001, Johnson and Marcotte 1999 ) . Irradiation intervention does non impact the quality of many trade goods, it is relatively safe to the environment and consumers, and does non necessitate to kill the insects to supply quarantine security. Irradiation has been successfully used for the control of many insect plagues such as apple maggot ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) , pampering moth ( Cydia pomonella ) , coconut graduated table ( Aspidiotus destructor ) ( Follett 2006 ) , carambola fruit bore bit ( Eucosma notanthes ) ( Lin et al. 2003 ) , huhu beetle, ( Prionolplus reticularis ) ( Lester et al. 2000 ) , rice weevil ( Sitophilus zeamais ) ( Hu et al. 2003 ) , Mango seed weevil ( Sternochetus mangiferae ) ( Follett 2001 ) , and coffin nail beetle ( Lasioderma serricorne ) ( Hu et al. 2002 ) . Among insects, Diptera ( flies ) , Coleoptera ( beetles ) , Hemiptera ( true bugs ) tend to be less radio-tolerant than Lepidoptera ( moths and butterflies ) , although there is a considerable fluctuation among the species that have been tested within these groups ( Hallman 2000, Bakri et Al. 2005, Follet et Al. 2007 ) .
Geography and environmental conditions of Taiwan provide one of the most favourable conditions for P. child to set up its population. Irradiation continues to be a subject of involvement in Taiwan, with several surveies published late on plagues of stored merchandises, such as the coffin nail beetle, L. serricorne ( Hu et al. 2002 ) , rice weevil, S. zeamais ( Hu et al. 2003 ) and the carambola fruit bore bit, E. notanthes ( Lin et al. 2003 ) . In this survey, we discuss ( 1 ) effects of radiation on the, mortality, development, grownup reproduction, oviposited eggs, and birthrate of F1 and F2 coevals of P. child, and ( 2 ) to place an effectual radiation dosage for P. child.
Materials and Methods
In order to obtain mixed-age settlements for irradiation trials, wild strains of P. child were collected from Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Council Of Agriculture, Taichung, Taiwan ( ROC ) in 2006. One hundred assorted immature phases of P. child were carefully removed from the parent settlement utilizing a new soft pigment coppice ( 0.5 millimeter bristles ) and every bit distributed to uninfested Irish murphies ( Solanum tuberosum ) . Fresh settlements of P. childs were reared under close laboratory observations at the Insect-Plant Interaction research lab in National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. A stereo-microscope was used to divide and administer the immature stages on the outer surfaces of uninfested Irish murphies. These freshly infested Irish murphies were placed on little petri dishes ( 500 = 6 centimeter, 42.39 cm? , Alpha Plus Scientific Corporation, Taoyuan, Taiwan ) in 500 milliliter unit of ammunition plastic containers ( d = 14 centimeter, 1846.32 cm? , Day Young Enterprise Company Limited, Chang- Hua, Taiwan ) to set up new settlements. Cloth gauzes ( 1521 meshes/ cm? , Hsing Guang Hang Company, Taichung, Taiwan ) were used as palpebras of the containers for good aeration. The process was repeatedly performed under close laboratory observation to keep available settlements for the research. Rearing conditions for P. child during the continuance of the experiments were 29 ± 5a„? , photoperiod of 14:10 ( L: D ) and 70 % comparative humidness.
Under our research lab conditions a female grownup was capable of ovipositing more than 300 eggs. Due to parthenogenesis among these insects, we focused our survey on female public presentation, since it would be biased to presume that the eggs oviposited were consequences of successful coupling. We selected and used eggs that were 7- 14 yearss old because it took approximately 7- 14 yearss for these eggs to hatch to first instar.
In order to analyze the most irradiation tolerant phase, each irradiation trial consisted of assorted life phases of P. child. Five skin parts consisting of assorted life phases of P.minor settlements were transferred into five several clean plastic cups ( d = 9 centimeter, 368.79 cm? , Alpha Plus Scientific Corporation, Taoyuan, Taiwan ) . A slit of about 2 centimeters in length was made on each of the container palpebra in order to let aeration. The first cup was irradiated at 50 Gy, the 2nd at 100 Gy, 3rd at 150 Gy, 4th at 200 Gy, and the 5th cup at 250 Gy. A non-irradiated control was handled in the same mode to compare the consequences. After irradiation, each cup was sealed in separate plastic containers ( d = 14 centimeter, 1846.32 cm? , Day Young Enterprise Company Limited, Chang- Hua, Taiwan ) . Follett et Al. ( 2007 ) suggested that by and large five doses should be selected and five replicates of at least 30-50 insects should be used. In this survey three replicates were irradiated at different clip intervals. One hundred insects of each life phase were studied for each replicate of each dosage. The irradiation intervention was conducted utilizing a 30 kCi cobalt- 60 hot cell at the Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. The irradiation phonograph record incorporating several insect set-ups were rotated 10 times per minute to guarantee that the irradiated sample received a well-distributed radiation dosage with a changeless dosage rate of 2 kGy/ H for assorted clip intervals in order to obtain 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy of gamma beams. The captive dosage was measured utilizing Ag bichromate dosemeter. Immediately after irradiation, the irradiated cargos and control were transported back to the Insect-Plant Interaction research lab in NCHU, Taichung, Taiwan, which is about one and a half hours drive off.
Right after reaching to NCHU, one hundred persons of different life phases were carefully removed from irradiated assorted life phase settlements utilizing a soft pigment coppice ( 0.5 millimeter bristles ) and were every bit distributed to uninfested murphies in clean separate plastic containers ( d = 14 centimeter, 1846.32 cm? , Day Young Enterprise Company Limited, Chang- Hua, Taiwan ) . Each container was separated from other interventions and sealed with cloth gauzes ( 1521 meshes/ cm? , Hsing Guang Hang Company, Taichung, Taiwan ) as palpebras. The remotion of single insects from its irradiated parent settlement was done with close observation under the microscope chiefly due to the little size of P. minor. A separate and new soft pigment coppice ( 0.5 millimeter bristles ) was used for every transportation of different single life phase for every intervention to avoid mixture of life phases or mixture of irradiated insects of different irradiation doses. Non irradiated control was used for each size category and was handled likewise to treated P. minor. These processs guarantee that no single life phase is by chance transferred to a different life phase set up. After irradiation intervention, the insects were held for 4- 8 hebdomads for observation on mortality rate, per centum of grownup reproduction, figure of oviposited eggs, and birthrate of eggs for the new offspring. Irradiated P. minor which did non put feasible eggs, particularly at 150- 250 Gy were observed until they all died, likewise all eggs that did non hatch at 150- 250 Gy were observed until they all died.
All informations were subjected to analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) and arrested development analysis utilizing the General Linear Model ( GLM ) process of Statistic Analysis System ( SAS ; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA ; Version 9.1 ) followed by Tukey ‘s trial. A chance of P & A ; lt ; 0.05 was considered important. The per centum informations were transformed into arsine before ANOVA analysis.
The standard used for survival success in this research was based on the figure of eggs that were able to hatch 7- 14 yearss after irradiation. Irradiated eggs of P. child which survived to first instar after irradiation decreased from 96 % in the control group to 14 % in 250 Gy ( Fig. 1a ) . Although there was no important difference ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05, Tukey trial ) in mortality rate between 150 and 200 Gy and besides between 200 and 250 Gy, important difference ( Y = 88.38 – 0.31x, r2 = 0.95 ) was achieved with increasing doses from 50 to 250 Gy ( Fig. 1a ) . Of those persons which successfully emerged from irradiated eggs, there was no important difference ( P= 0.4392, df = 5, 2, Tukey trial ) compared with the survivorship to adult phase of the control group ( Fig. 1b ) . However, irradiated P. childs were much weaker, stunted in growing, decelerate and easy fell off the surfaces of the host trade good upon perturbation ( little motion of the host trade good ) .
Percentage ( % ) of grownup reproduction
The standard used for per centum of grownup reproduction in this research was based upon the generative success of females that developed from irradiated eggs. In the control group, 90.20 % of females reared from eggs produced eggs themselves. Although increasing doses of irradiation led to important lessening ( Y = 70.51 – 0.16x, r2 = 0.63 ) in the figure of females that were able to put eggs, there was no important difference ( P= 0.4392, F = 1.08, Tukey trial ) in the per centum ( % ) of grownups reproducing among different doses of irradiation used ( Fig. 1c ) . It was non clear whether the reproduction per centum of these grownup females were consequence of sexual reproduction or parthenogeny. Adults within the five irradiation interventions that could non put eggs were believed to be affected by irradiation in comparing to the control group which showed high figure of grownup females puting eggs.
The oviposited eggs were calculated harmonizing to the figure of eggs that were laid by generative females. The figure of eggs oviposited per generative grownups irradiated as eggs was significantly lower ( Y = 295.20 – 1.20x, r2 = 0.90 ) at all intervention degrees in comparing to insects in the control group ( Fig. 1d ) . At 200 Gy, the figure of eggs oviposited was undistinguished to 150 and 250 Gy even though they were all progressively low ( Fig. 1d ) . Females that oviposited laid an norm of 86.60 eggs at 150 Gy and an norm of 82.50 eggs at 250 Gy compared to the control group which laid an norm of 311.60 eggs ( Fig. 1d ) . Fig. 1d shows that the lowest irradiation dose of 50 Gy had a drastic consequence on the figure of eggs oviposited by generative females which survived from the egg phase. All doses of gamma irradiation had an impact with the sum of eggs oviposited by generative females which survived from irradiated eggs compared to the control group.
The impact of irradiation on the birthrate of all oviposited eggs showed important difference ( Y = 90.15 – 0.48x, r2 = 0.94 ) compared to the control group ( Fig. 1e ) . A sum of 93.06 % of eggs oviposited in control group hatched to first instar while irradiation halted hatching of eggs at 150 to 250 Gy. At 50 Gy, 62.14 % of eggs hatched which showed important difference with both the control group and the 41.15 % of eggs that hatched at 100 Gy. The hatch rate significantly decreased with increasing irradiation doses to 100 Gy. There were low Numberss of eggs which did non hatch from 150 to 250 Gy and in bend halted the hatching of eggs to the new coevals. The hatch rate of eggs from generative females which survived from irradiated eggs significantly decreased with increasing doses of irradiation compared to the control group.
Irradiated Immature Phases
The figure of immature phases which survived irradiation from irradiated immature phases of P. childs decreased with increasing doses of irradiation ( Y = 90.87 – 0.30x, r2 = 0.95 ) . The lowest dosage of 50 Gy, showed important lessening on the survival rate of P. child to 66.67 % from 97.67 % compared to the control group ( Fig. 2a ) . There was no important difference between the survival rate of 50 Gy treated immatures compared to survival rate of 100 Gy treated immatures where 63.67 % of endurance was recorded ( Fig. 2a ) . The survival rate of immatures at 150 Gy was 43 % therefore there was no important difference between the survival rates of 200 ( 27.67 % ) and 250 Gy ( 19 % ) . Irradiated immature phases were stunted in growing and were soberly weak compared to the control group. Some of these immature stages though lived could non last to adult phase particularly under 250 Gy which saw merely 84.94 % of those that survived the irradiation developing to adult phase ( Fig. 2b ) . This was significantly low compared to other immature phases irradiated under lower doses. Although 95.23 % of immature phases irradiated at 200 Gy survived to adult phase, it was undistinguished compared to the 250 Gy group and the lower dose groups ( Fig. 2b ) . There were no important difference among the control group and irradiated immature phases at 50, 100 and 150 Gy.
Percentage ( % ) of Adult Reproduction
The figure of generative females that survived from radiation exposure as immature phases laid eggs at a lower rate with increasing doses of radiation. All treated immature phases were significantly ( Y = 87.17 – 0.24x, r? = 0.78 ) affected compared to the control group ( Fig. 2c ) . At 50 Gy, the figure of generative females decreased to 69.60 % from 92.30 % of control group. The effects of 200 Gy was non statistically different from the effects of 250 Gy in relation to per centum of grownup reproduction ( 37.30 % and 24.50 % , severally ) and besides the effects of 150 Gy were non significantly different from the effects of 100 Gy.
The dosage of 50 Gy significantly decreased the figure of oviposited eggs to an norm of 201 eggs per grownup compared to an norm of 320 eggs per grownup in control group. The figure of oviposited eggs significantly decreased ( Y = 295.26 – 1.31x, r2 = 0.87 ) with increasing doses of irradiation. Each ovipositing grownup oviposited an norm of lone 70 eggs at 250 Gy which was significantly lower compared to the average norm of 320 eggs laid per generative grownup in the control phase. There was important difference in the figure of oviposited eggs laid by single generative grownups in every increasing dose of irradiation from 50 to 200 Gy. In the 150 Gy group, an norm of 95 eggs were laid per grownup while grownups in the 200 Gy group oviposited ( Y = 295.26 – 1.31x, r2 = 0.87 ) an norm of 83 eggs per person ( Fig. 2d ) .
The impact of irradiation on the birthrate rate of all oviposited eggs of the new offspring showed important difference compared to the control group Y = ( 91.54 – 0.51x, r2 = 0.94 ) ( Fig. 2e ) . About 93.31 % of eggs oviposited in control group hatched to F2 immature phases while irradiation halted hatching of eggs at 150 to 250 Gy. At 50 Gy, 64.24 % of eggs hatched which was significantly different from the control and the 100 Gy treated groups ( 93.31 % and 44.28 % , severally ) to both the control group and the 44.28 % of eggs which hatched at 100 Gy. The doses from 150 to 250 Gy successfully halt the hatching of eggs to F2 coevals.
Mortality/ Survival Rate
Increasing doses of irradiation decreased the survival rate of grownups compared to the control group ( Y = 96.06 – 0.29x, r2 = 0.98 ) . The dosage of 50 Gy decreased the endurance rate to 83 % compared to the 97.70 % survival rate of control group ( Fig. 3a ) . Mortality rate at 250 Gy was high with merely 26 % survival rate. The dosage of 100 Gy decreased the endurance rate to 65 % compared to the 47.70 % of 150 Gy group and 37.30 % in 200 Gy group ( Fig. 3a ) . The lasting grownups were really weak and stunted compared to the control group.
Percentage ( % ) of Adult Reproduction
The consequence of radiation on generative grownup phase of P. minor females quickly decreased the per centum of grownup reproduction compared to the figure of females that were able to oviposit in the control group ( Fig. 3b ) . Adult females that were exposed from 50 to 250 Gy showed a important lessening in their capableness to oviposit. The per centum of grownup reproduction was determined by the figure of females that survived and were able to oviposit. Whether the figure of females that laid eggs is the consequence of successful coupling was non clear since P. child is besides capable of parthenogeny. The low figure of irradiated females which were capable of puting eggs was non significantly different among different irradiation doses though were relatively lower compared to the control phase. The 50 Gy ( 44.65 % ) group and 100 Gy ( 42.36 % ) group per centums of grownup reproduction were non significantly different from each other, but were twice lower than the control group ( Fig. 3b ) .
The entire figure of eggs oviposited by single females quickly decreased with increasing doses of radiation ( Y = 310.48 – 1.25x, r2 = 0.89 ) ( Fig. 3c ) . The figure of eggs oviposited by the 50 Gy treated group, 223.1 eggs, was significantly lower than controls, 327.10 eggs. The 100 Gy dosage resulted in an norm of 153.20 eggs oviposited per female grownups. At 200 and 250 Gy, though the female grownups were able to oviposit, the figure of eggs laid was significantly lower compared to the effects of the lower doses of irradiation. Under 250 Gy, 10 of the lasting female grownups were able to put an norm of 81 eggs which was about 1/3 lower than those laid per female in control group ( Fig. 3c ) .
Similar to treated immature and egg phases, the impact of radiation on the hatch rate of all F2 oviposited eggs of irradiated grownups was significantly lower as compared to the control group ( Y= 91.59 – 0.45x, r2 = 0.92 ) ( Fig. 3d ) . About 92.41 % of eggs oviposited in control group hatched to F2 immature phase while irradiation at 150 to 250 Gy impaired egg hatch. At 50 Gy 68.40 % of eggs hatched which was significantly different to both the control group and the 100 Gy grouping which 92.41 and 49.45 % of eggs hatched, severally. None of the comparatively few eggs produced by insects treated with 150 to 250 Gy hatched ( Fig. 3d ) .
Among insects, many irradiation surveies have been performed on Diptera ( flies ) and Coleoptera ( beetles ) which tend to be less wireless tolerant than Lepidoptera ( moths and butterflies ) , although there is a considerable fluctuation among the species that have been tested within these groups ( Hallman 2000, Bakri et Al. 2005 ) . Estimates for Hemiptera ( graduated tables, mealy bugs, aphids and whiteflies ) and Thysanoptera ( thrips ) are based on a little figure of surveies.
Our focal point was similar to surveies conducted on other insects such as tephritid fruit flies reported in past documents ( Follett et al. 2007 ) , forestalling grownup outgrowth may be hard so big asepsis is the end. Adult asepsis has been the focal point of many irradiation interventions in the control of many insect plagues ( Lester et al. 2000, Follett 2001, 2006, Lin et Al. 2003, Hu et Al. 2002, 2003 ) .
Our consequence shows that the increasing doses did non do 100 % mortality in all irradiated life phases, nevertheless lasting insects were drastically affected in ulterior public presentations such as decreased per centum of grownup reproduction ( ability of female grownups to put eggs ) , reduced Numberss of oviposited eggs, which all eventually consequences in oviposited F2 eggs neglecting to hatch following interventions at 150 Gy to 250 Gy, therefore bespeaking asepsis in grownup phase. Unlike other disinfestation techniques, irradiation does non necessitate to kill the pest instantly to supply quarantine security, and hence unrecorded ( but sterile or non feasible ) insects may happen with the exported trade good doing review for the mark pests excess as a verification of intervention application and efficaciousness ( Follett et al. 2007 ) .
Our consequences show that both, the hatching rate of irradiated eggs and the birthrate rate of eggs oviposited by female grownups of all irradiated life phases of P. child, lessening with increasing doses of radiation. Previous surveies ( Hasan and Khan 1998, Faruki et Al. 2007 ) on other insects besides showed that increasing doses of radiation decreased the per centum egg hatch. Yang and Sacher ( 1969 ) reported a hold in development that was relative to the radiation doses. Therefore, this hold could hold a physiological consequence on the biological construction of the insect that would impact its later development, perchance ensuing to asepsis of generative grownups.
In this survey, 150 to 250 Gy was the optimal dose to sterile grownup P. child. At 150 to 250 Gy, there were no new offspring for all indicated life phases bespeaking that 150 Gy is sufficient to supply asepsis for insects studied in our experiment. Similar consequence as a baseline to find the optimal dose was used by Follett ( 2006 ) . The optimum dosage for male insects to be released in a Sterile Insect Technique ( SIT ) programme depends on their degree of asepsis and fight ( Helinski et al. 2006 ) . Since parthenogeny was high among P. child, females were the chief mark therefore the same criterion of asepsis was exhaustively considered. Follett et Al. ( 2007 ) besides reported that females are normally more tolerant than males moreover ; sex tolerant phase finding is merely performed when the method of reproduction is unsure.
Our survey provides one of the few land interrupting consequences for the use of irradiation against Hemiptera insects, peculiarly Pacific mealy bug, P. child. Our research unambiguously focuses on the public presentations of eggs, immatures and grownups particularly female because of the high grade of parthenogeny that occurs. We observed similar parametric quantities on all irradiated life phases, eventually placing that the grownup is the most tolerant phase. Irradiation weakens the development, per centum grownup reproduction, oviposition and hatching of eggs for P. child. Furthermore, we conclude that 150 to 250 Gy is the optimal dose that inhibited the hatching of eggs to a new coevals, therefore sterilise P. minor. We besides studied the effects ( unpublished ) of irradiation on Custard apple, A. squamosa, a good known host of P. child, a prospective export trade good in Taiwan. There was no important harm or devastation found at 250 Gy. Irradiation is inexpensive, environmental friendly and safe, irradiated nutrient is besides safe to devour.
Our survey besides agrees with the proposed irradiation dosage of 250 Gy by Follett et Al. ( 2007 ) to sterilise or forestall coevals turnover in Hemiptera insects. Very few irradiation surveies have been performed on Hemiptera insect peculiarly P. child, therefore more comprehensive surveies are needed. This survey provides a scaffold to future irradiation surveies for Taiwan and abroad and we strongly suggest irradiation as a control step for P. child.
We unfeignedly appreciate everyone who contributed to this research. Two anon. referees besides provided valuable input to better the manuscript. God bless you.
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Fig. 1. Effectss of radiation dosage on eggs in footings of ( 1a ) hatch rate of eggs ( B ) endurance of 1st instars to adult phase ( degree Celsius ) per centum ( % ) reproduction of grownups which developed from irradiated eggs, ( vitamin D ) figure of oviposited eggs of grownups which developed from irradiated eggs, ( vitamin E ) hatch rate of eggs of grownups which developed from irradiated eggs. Datas are expressed as average ± SE ; bars without the same missive ( s ) are significantly different ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05, Turkey ‘s Test ) . Equations for the arrested development lines were Y = 88.38 – 0.31x ( r2 = 0.95 ) for hatch rate of eggs, Y = 100.96 – 0.02x ( r2 = 0.21 ) for endurance of 1st instars to adult phase, Y = 70.51 – 0.16x ( r2 = 0.63 ) for per centum of reproduction, Y = 295.20 – 1.20x ( r2 = 0.90 ) for figure of oviposited eggs, and Y = 90.15 – 0.48x ( r2 = 0.94 ) for birthrate rate.
Fig. 2. Effectss of radiation dosage on immature phase in footings of ( a ) endurance rate of irradiated immature phases, ( B ) P. minor immature stages that survived to adult phase from irradiated immature phase, ( degree Celsius ) per centum ( % ) of reproduction of grownups which developed from irradiated immature phase, ( vitamin D ) figure of oviposited eggs of grownups which developed from irradiated immature phase, ( vitamin E ) hatch rate of eggs of grownups which developed from irradiated immature phase. Datas are expressed as average ± SE ; bars without the same missive ( s ) are significantly different ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Equations for the arrested development lines were Y = 90.87 – 0.30x ( r2 = 0.95 ) for survival rate of immature phases, Y = 102.22 – 0.05x ( r2 = 0.53 ) for endurance of immature phases to adult phase, Y = 87.17 – 0.24x ( r2 = 0.78 ) for per centum of reproduction, Y = 295.26 – 1.31x ( r2 = 0.87 ) for figure of oviposited eggs, and Y = 91.54 – 0.51x ( r2 = 0.94 ) for birthrate rate.
Fig. 3. Effectss of radiation dosage on grownups in footings of ( a ) endurance rate of irradiated grownups, ( B ) per centum ( % ) of reproduction for irradiated grownups, ( degree Celsius ) figure of oviposited eggs of irradiated grownups, ( vitamin D ) hatch rate of eggs oviposited by irradiated grownups. Datas are expressed as average ± SE ; bars without the same missive ( s ) are significantly different ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Equations for the arrested development lines were Y = 96.06 – 0.29x ( r2 = 0.98 ) for survival rate of grownups, Y = 73.39 – 0.27x ( r2 = 0.78 ) for per centum of reproduction, Y = 310.48 – 1.25x ( r2 = 0.89 ) for figure of oviposited eggs, and Y = 91.59 – 0.45x ( r2 = 0.92 ) for birthrate rate.