Problem statement: There are limited informations on age related alterations in the physical, haematological and biochemical parametric quantities of endurance Equus caballuss. Therefore, the intent of this survey was to look into any differences in these parametric quantities associated to aging. Approach: This survey was conducted in Malaysia to find the post-race haematological, blood electrolyte, biochemical and physical parametric quantities of endurance Equus caballuss based on age for the eliminated Equus caballuss and those that completed the races with good public presentation. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples were collected after each race. Consequences: After physical scrutiny, n=12 ( 6-10 ) old ages, n=33 ( 11-15 ) old ages, n=12 ( 16-20 ) old ages, n=9 ( 21-25 ) old ages, and n=6 ( 26-30 ) old ages were eliminated from the race while the good public presentation Equus caballuss that completed the race successfully are n=3 ( 6-10 ) old ages and n=6 ( 11-15 ) old ages. The average bosom rate of the good public presentation Equus caballuss in the 11-15 old ages class was 54±7.9 beats per minute and was lower than that of the eliminated Equus caballuss in all age brackets. The blood lactate concentration of good public presentation Equus caballuss was 9.6±2.3 mmol L-1 in the 11-15 old ages class, which was significantly higher than the eliminated Equus caballuss in the full age class. The blood glucose concentration was lower in the good public presentation endurance Equus caballuss within the 6-10 old ages bracket with 1.3±0.8mmol L-1 than the eliminated endurance Equus caballuss in the full age class. Decision: The survey showed that eliminated Equus caballuss within the 16-20 old ages bracket exhibited poorer glucose use than the good public presentation Equus caballuss within the 6-10 old ages bracket, these may hold resulted in hapless lactate production. Thus the blood lactate and glucose concentrations of Equus caballuss during preparation may be used to foretell public presentation based on age in endurance races.
Cardinal words: Hematological, biochemical parametric quantities, physical parametric quantities, glucose, endurance Equus caballuss, plasma electrolyte, Lactate Dehydrogenase ( LDH ) , Ethyl Diaminotetra-Acetic Acid ( EDTA ) , and age.
Recent surveies have showed that up to 15 % of the Equus caballus population are over 20 old ages of age with many of these Equus caballuss are able to execute in athletic competitions ( Robert, et al. , 2004 ) . Several Equus caballuss are in their late teens and are in the extremum of their public presentation callings, viing in endurance drives, dressage, jumping, three-day eventing, and other athletic competitions. Age seems to impact cardiorespiratory map in the Equus caballus ( McKeever and Malinowski, 1997 ; McKeever et al. , 1998 ) . It has besides been indicated that older Equus caballuss may be at higher hazard of developing hyperthermy due to alterations in fluid and electrolyte position giving manner to the mental unsoundness of cardiovascular map and heat loss mechanisms ( McKeever et al. , 2000 ) . While recent surveies have elaborated on age-related alterations in cardinal factors impacting exercising ability in the Equus caballus, other surveies have examined peripheral alterations in relation to aging ( Robert, et al. , 2004 ) .
Adaptation of muscular fibres to preparation Begins at an early age and this potentiates their citrate synthetase activity in the musculuss, every bit good as type IIA and type IIB fibre proportions. The adaptational alterations, such as the increased type IIA and type IIB musculuss fiber ratios and increase oxidative enzymes capacity of the musculuss are, nevertheless, to a great extent are influenced by preparation ( Robert, et al. , 2004 ) .
The intermediate age group ( 10-16 ) old ages is an age where many Equus caballuss are still in their extremum athletically and are considered to be physiologically correspondent to 40 old ages and above in worlds ( Robert, et al. , 2004 ) .
The distribution of musculus fibre type is one set of steps of musculus map that may be changed by aging. Other steps that may hold a more critical consequence on the ability to execute exercising are organic structure composing and, more significantly, entire nonfat mass ( FFM ) . The larger constituent of a Equus caballus ‘s FFM is muscle mass and a recent survey has documented the strong correlativity between FFM and public presentation in elect Equus caballuss ( Robert, 2004 ) .
As one progresss in age, the oxidative capableness of human skeletal musculus besides declines ( Rooyackers et al. , 1996 ; Conley et al. , 2000 ) . Evidence of the reduced oxidative capableness is indicated in both the rate of mitochondrial protein biogenesis and activity of oxidative enzymes such as cytochrome degree Celsius oxidase and citrate synthase ( Rooyackers et al. , 1996 ; Houmard et al. , 1998 ) .
The decrease in the oxidative capableness seems to be associated to the age-related lessening in aerophilic capacity and musculus public presentation. There is besides grounds of decreased glycolytic capacity in elderly skeletal musculus ( Welle et al. , 2000 ) . These age-associated versions are due to physiological alterations and exacerbated by physical inaction during the ageing procedure ( Kim, et al. , 2005 ) .
The major physiological versions that can straight act upon exercising capacity and staying power of endurance Equus caballuss include the ability and efficiency of gas exchange, O consumption and bringing to the exerting musculuss. The working musculus of endurance Equus caballuss depends on aerophilic metamorphosis of its animal starch shops, blood fatty acids and volatile fatty acids from hindgut agitation, bosom size and capacity to present big volumes of blood to the tissue ( Lawan, et al. , 2010 ) .
Many factors can impact the haematological and biochemical parametric quantities including the strain, age and type of exercising. Besides, the consequence of age on several parametric quantities has been observed in different strains and age groups ( McKeever et al. , 1998 ) .
Measurement of the fittingness or exercising tolerance of a Equus caballus is by appraisal, through physical scrutiny of bosom rates and respiratory rates ( Cottin et al. , 2006 ; Bashir and Rasedee, 2009 ) . Hematologic and biochemical changes can besides be analyzed by obtaining the post-ride blood samples ( Valberg, 2009 ) . Post-ride blood lactate concentrations are sometimes used to demo fittingness of the Equus caballus. As fittingness additions, post-ride blood lactate concentrations of the Equus caballus should go low. In fact, maximum blood lactate steady province concentration and anaerobiotic threshold have been indicated to foretell preparation and public presentations ( Gondim et al. , 2007 ) . In endurance competitions, emphasis and weariness are vividly shown by alterations in go arounding red blood cells and leucocyte Numberss and in creatinine concentration of the Equus caballuss. Tissue reconstructing can besides happen in endurance competitions and this is indicated by alterations in plasma factor I, urea, proteins and creatine kinase ( Benamou-Smith et al. , 2006 ) . Endurance Equus caballuss require Ca for musculus contractions and low plasma degrees of Ca during strenuous endurance drives can take to metabolic jobs and failures, including synchronal diaphragmatic waver. However, high blood Ca concentration is needless because it may increase the frequence of clumps during endurance competitions ( Lewis, 1995 ) . In tying-up, Equus caballuss ‘ exhibit increased musculus enzymes, Creatine Kinase ( CK ) , aspartate transaminase ( AST ) and Lactate Dehydrogenase ( LDH ) ( Hodgson and Rose, 1994 ) .
It is known that factors impacting lung wellness can hold added consequence in the Equus caballus. Over a long clip older Equus caballuss can be exposed to more pathogens and allergens that can take to little air passage diseases. Pathologies like hyperreactive air passage disease and chronic clogging pneumonic disease, exercise-induced pneumonic bleeding, be given to be more prevailing in older animate beings ( McKeever, 2003 ) .
The ageing procedure typically is responsible for physical mental unsoundnesss such as a decrease in musculus force bring forthing capacity and impaired mobility in mammals. This phenomenon appears to be chiefly due to decrease in the ability of musculuss to bring forth and prolong power end product in association with alterations in muscular construction and map during ageing ( Kim, et Al, 2005 ) .
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects: Eighty-one endurance Equus caballuss that participated in three endurance competitions each consisting of, n=12 ( 6-10 ) old ages, n=33 ( 11-15 ) old ages, n=12 ( 16-20 ) old ages, n=9 ( 21-25 ) old ages, and n=6 ( 26-30 ) old ages were eliminated from the race while the good public presentation Equus caballuss that completed the race successfully are n=3 ( 6-10 ) old ages and n=6 ( 11-15 ) old ages were sampled. Among these, 72 Equus caballuss were eliminated and 9 Equus caballuss completed the race successfully.
Veterinary review: Veterinary review was conducted after each leg of the race on all viing Equus caballuss and physical parametric quantities recorded. The physical parametric quantities evaluated were the resting bosom rate ( 44-64 = normal, 65-70 = high, 71-90 = really high ) ; mucose membrane ( 1 = normal, 2 = reasonably congested, 3 = terrible congestion ) ; capillary refill clip ( 1 sec = normal, 2 sec = centrist, 3 sec = severe ) ; skin kick ( 1 = normal tegument, 2 = moderate desiccation, 3 = badly dehydrated ) ; gut motility or sound ( 1 = normal, 2 = centrist, 3 = no motility or sound ) and pace ( 1 = normal, 2 = moderate hitch, 3 = terrible hitch ) . The Equus caballuss were besides observed for tenderness or hurts on the dorsum, withers, girth country, organic structure or distal appendages.
Sampling: Blood samples were obtained from all Equus caballuss, anticoagulated with Ethyl Diaminotetra-Acetic Acid ( EDTA ) for haematological analysis and Li Lipo-Hepin for biochemical analysis. The haematological parametric quantities determined were erythrocyte, leucocyte platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration ( Cell DYN 3700, Abbot ) and haematocrit ( PCV ) ( Hettich-Hematocrit 210 and Hawksley microhematocrit reader ) and differential leukocyte count, The plasma electrolyte and biochemical, Na, K, chloride, Ca, urea, creatinine, hematoidin,
Aspartate Transaminase ( AST ) , Creatine Kinase ( CK ) , glucose, lactate, entire protein, albumen and globulin concentrations were determined by chemical science analyser ( Hitachi 920 ) utilizing standard diagnostic kits ( Roche ) .
Seventy-two Equus caballuss were eliminated from the endurance competition. Merely nine Equus caballuss managed to finish the race without metabolic marks and all were from the n=3 ( 6-10 ) old ages and n=6 ( 11-15 ) old ages class. All Equus caballuss from the n=33 ( 11-15 ) old ages, n=12 ( 16-20 ) old ages, n=9 ( 21-25 ) old ages, and n=6 ( 26-30 ) old ages classs were eliminated because of metabolic or physical mental unsoundnesss. Horses that completed the races with good public presentation between the age of 11-15 old ages bracket have showed a lower average bosom rate ( Table 5 ) . The haematology, plasma/serum electrolyte and biochemical parametric quantities are presented in Table 1-4. The mean segmented neutrophils is higher in the eliminated endurance Equus caballuss within the 26-30 old ages bracket than other age groups among the eliminated Equus caballuss and besides compared to the good public presentation Equus caballuss in the 6-10 and 11-15 old ages bracket. The most important alteration in haematology and plasma biochemistry parametric quantities were lactate concentrations which were significantly higher in good public presentation Equus caballuss within the 11-15 old ages bracket than those eliminated from the endurance race in the same age bracket and other age brackets. The plasma glucose concentrations were lower in the good public presentation within the 6-10 old ages bracket than the eliminated Equus caballuss in the same age bracket and the other age brackets. There were no enormous alterations in the other parametric quantities.
Recent surveies have showed that up to 20 % of the Equus caballus population in Malaysia are over 20 old ages of age with many of these Equus caballuss being eliminated from athletic competitions. Several Equus caballuss are in their late teens and are in the extremum of their public presentation callings, viing in endurance drives. Owing to the little figure of these Equus caballuss they are continuously being circulated monthly for endurance races later taking to unsuitably conditioning.
This survey was conducted on Equus caballuss between the ages of 6-30 old ages take parting in endurance competitions to find the consequence of age on the physical, haematology and blood biochemistry parametric quantities. The consequence showed that merely about 10 % of these Equus caballuss managed to finish the races in good status. The remainder of the Equus caballuss were eliminated from the endurance race.
Age seems to impact cardiorespiratory map and tissue oxygenation in the endurance Equus caballuss, subjecting the older endurance Equus caballuss to hold higher hazard of developing hyperthermy due to alterations in fluid and electrolyte position giving manner to a big per centum of these Equus caballuss finally being eliminated from the endurance race because of assorted metabolic and physical upsets. These are besides dependent on the O passenger car capacity of blood, which is dependent on erythrocyte figure and hemoglobin concentrations.
Endurances Equus caballuss that have metabolic upsets in races could non bring forth equal musculus public presentation either because of deficient oxidization or hapless glucose use to bring forth adequate energy for muscular actions during endurance drives. During rides the blood lactate concentrations are expected to be high in these Equus caballuss. The value of blood lactate in the Equus caballus is used as an index of public presentation and weariness ( Lawan, et al. , 2010 ) .
It has been indicated, that during endurance drives blood lactate concentrations addition, but the degrees seldom exceed 4 mmol L-1 even in ill Equus caballuss. In fact the velocity of the Equus caballus when the blood lactate concentration attains 4 mmol L-1 ( VLA4 ) is used as an index of fittingness of Equus caballus during conditioning ( Fielding et al. , 2009 ; Lindner et al. , 2009 ; 2010 ) . In our survey, nevertheless, the average blood lactate concentrations for all Equus caballuss were higher than 6 mmol L-1. This value was attained after endurance races irrespective of age. Horses that completed the races with good public presentation had even higher blood lactate concentrations making average values of higher than 9 mmol L-1, which were significantly higher than those in the eliminated Equus caballuss.
The endurance Equus caballuss that were eliminated in our survey had lower go arounding blood lactate and higher blood glucose concentrations than good public presentation Equus caballuss. It is non vividly clear why the eliminated Equus caballuss produced less lactate from tissue metamorphosis during endurance drives. From the high blood glucose concentration there is a possible indicant that decreases in lactate production could be related to hapless glucose consumption by the metabolizing tissue. In acute exercising, the glucose transporters in the skeletal musculus, which mediate insulin-responsive use of glucose, additions ( Hayashi, et al. , 1997 ; Tom & A ; aacute ; s, et al. , 2002 ; Hirshman, et al. , 1988 ; Prenen, et Al, 2005 ; Alhusseini, et al. , 2010 ) . Hence, the exerting musculuss produce lactate from glucose through the anaerobiotic mechanisms. Therefore from the consequence of this survey, it seems that the deficient degrees of the glucose transporters in the skeletal musculus that leads to the hapless public presentation of the susceptible Equus caballuss ( Hayashi et al. , 1997 ) , therefore ensuing in the increased degrees of blood glucose concentrations and low blood lactate in the eliminated Equus caballuss.
In decision, the survey indicated that eliminated Equus caballuss had low blood lactate and increased blood glucose concentrations than the good public presentation Equus caballuss. This blood biochemical manifestation in eliminated Equus caballuss may be related to deficient musculus tissue metamorphosis. The parametric quantities may be used as indexs of public presentation in Equus caballuss during the conditioning policies.
The research workers truly appreciate the attempt and aid offered Mr. Mohamed Halmi Othman, Mr. Abdullah Misron, the staffs of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University Putra Malaysia particularly Mr. Salehuddin and Drs Mohammad Fairuz Jamaluddin, Muhammad Munsiff Kamarudin and Mimi Armiladiana Mohamad for their aid, advice and encouragement.