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The chief purpose of the present work was to fix and measure gastro recollective micro domains for the controlled release of Ranitidine Hydrochloride utilizing man-made ( Ethyl Cellulose ) and natural polymers ( Gellan and Karaya gums ) and high denseness stuff ( Titanium dioxide ) . The micro domains were prepared by the coacervation stage separation technique. The drug was checked for its compatibility with polymers used by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic ( FTIR ) surveies. The surface morphology of micro domains was studied by scanning negatron microscopic ( SEM ) surveies. The per centum of output, surface associated drug content, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro disintegration surveies were performed. Accelerated stableness surveies were besides carried out to the optimized preparations ( F-5 and F-6 ) . The FTIR spectrum of pure drug and drug-polymer blend showed that there were no mutual exclusivenesss of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with the polymers used. SEM surveies showed that the micro domains were in spherical form. The micro spheres found to hold good entrapment efficiency and per centum output. The release of drug from the micro domains extended up to 12 h. The release dynamicss informations and word picture surveies indicated that drug release from micro domains was diffusion controlled and the accelerated stableness surveies proved that the prepared micro domains were stable. The survey revealed that Ethyl cellulose with Gellan gum, Karaya gum and Titanium dioxide in combinations outputs good quality micro spheres with promising features.

Cardinal words: Ranitidine Hydrochloride, Micro spheres, Ethyl cellulose, Gellan gum, Karaya gum, Titanium dioxide.


Micro spheres drug bringing systems made from the natural, biodegradable polymers have been attracted by several research workers for last decennary in prolonging the drug bringing ( Baken, 1987 ) . However micro domains prepared with man-made polymers have good physical and mechanical features. Micro spheres prepared with both man-made and natural polymers will hold all the advantages what an ideal micro domains should hold. However, the success of micro domains is limited due to their short abode clip at the site of absorption/action ( Chien, 1982 ) . High denseness micro domains provide an addition in stomachic abode clip by doing them to drop in stomachic fluid. This can be achieved by matching high denseness stuffs which has higher denseness so stomachic fluid ( Kondo, 1979 ) . High denseness systems have advantages like increased stomachic abode clip and specific targeting of drugs in tummy, efficient soaking up and enhanced bioavailability ( Gutcho, 1976 and Vyas, 2002 ) . Titanium dioxide was used every bit high denseness stuff in the present survey ( Ansel, 2000 ) . Gellan gum was obtained from Pseudomonas Elodea, which is chemically D-glucose, D-glucuronic acid and rhamnose in ?-1, 4 linkage whereas Karaya gum was obtained from the works Sterculia urens, which is chemically mixture of D-galactose, L- rhamnose and D-galacturonic acid ( Rakesh et al. , 2010 ) .

Ranitidine Hydrochloride is a histamine H2-receptor adversary. It is widely prescribed in active duodenal ulcers, stomachic ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastro esophageal reflux disease and erosive esophagitis. The recommended grownup unwritten dose of Ranitidine Hydrochloride is 150 mg twice daily or 300 milligrams one time daily. The effectual intervention of erosive esophagitis requires disposal of 150 milligram of Ranitidine Hydrochloride 4 times a twenty-four hours. A conventional dosage of 150 milligrams can suppress stomachic acid secernment up to 5 Hs but non up to 10 h. An alternate dosage of 300 milligrams leads to plasma fluctuations ; therefore a controlled release dose signifier of Ranitidine Hydrochloride is desirable. The short biological half life of drug ( ~2.5-3 H ) besides favors development of a controlled release preparation ( Reynolds, 1996 ) . In competition of the above rule, a strong demand was recognized for the development of a dose signifier to present controlled release gastro recollective bringing system of Ranitidine Hydrochloride.



Ranitidine Hydrochloride was obtained as a gift sample from Waksman Selman Pharmaceuticals, Anantapur, India ( Batch # R 005289 ) , Ethyl cellulose, Gellan gum, Karaya gum, Glyceraldehyde and Titanium oxide were procured from SD Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India. Sunflower oil was procured from MORE ace market, Anantapur, India. All the trustees used were of analytical reagent class and dual distilled H2O was used throughout the experiment.

Preformulation Surveies

Solubility analysis

Solubility analysis was performed for Ranitidine Hydrochloride pure drug to gauge the pureness and to choose a suited dissolver system and disintegration medium to fade out the drug. Melting Point finding

Melting point finding of the obtained sample was done because it is a good first indicant of pureness of the sample since the presence of comparatively little sum of dross can be detected by a lowering every bit good as broadening in the thaw point scope. Melting point of obtained sample was determined by utilizing ………………… .

Determination of ? soap utilizing UV spectrophotometer:

100 milligram of Ranitidine Hydrochloride was accurately weighed and dissolved in 100 milliliter of 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid. 1 milliliter of above solution was farther diluted to 100 milliliters with 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid. The so obtained solution was scanned on a UV Scanner between 200 to 400nm utilizing dual beam UV/visible spectrophotometer ( Elico SL210, Hyderabad, India ) .. The maximal extremum obtained in the graph was considered as ? soap for the pure drug.

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic ( FTIR ) surveies

FTIR spectrums of pure sample of Ranitidine Hydrochloride was procured by FTIR spectrophotometer ( Perkin Elmer, spectrum-100, Japan ) utilizing the KBr disc method ( 5.2510 milligram sample in 300.2502 milligrams KBr ) . The scanning scope was 500 to 4000 cm-1 and the declaration was 1 cm-1. The spectrum was studied for characteristic extremums of Ranitidine Hydrochloride.

Compatibility Surveies

FTIR surveies

FTIR spectrums of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with polymers used were obtained separately and in combinations by FTIR spectrophotometer utilizing the KBr disc method ( 5.1346 milligram sample in 300.1679 milligrams KBr ) . The scanning scope was 500 to 4000 cm-1 and the declaration was 1 cm-1. This spectral analysis was employed to look into the compatibility of drugs with the polymers used.

Preparation of micro domains

Ranitidine Hydrochloride micro domains were prepared by coacervation stage separation technique utilizing temperature opportunity ( Hwang et al. , 1998 and Deshpande et al. , 1996 ) . Ethyl cellulose, Gellan gum, Karaya gum and Titanium dioxide were dissolved in 10ml of methyl alcohol. To this Ranitidine Hydrochloride was added and stirred at 300 revolutions per minute with the aid of magnetic scaremonger for 10 min to acquire a stable scattering. The scattering was poured bead wise into the 100ml of sunflower oil at room temperature. At the terminal of 2 H crosslinking agent Glyceraldehyde ( 0.5ml ) was added to the scattering medium and stirring was continued for following 30 min. Finally it was kept in icebox for 24 H to guarantee the rigidity of micro domains. This Procedure was followed to fix 6 batches of Ranitidine Hydrochloride micro domains with different ratios of Ethyl cellulose, Gellan gum and Karaya gum. The nucleus: coat ratio, sum of drug and polymers used were given in Table 1.

Flow Properties

Angle of rest

This was determined by utilizing funnel method. The formulated micro domains were poured from a funnel that can be raised vertically until a cone formed. The tallness ( H ) and radius ( R ) of pile was measured. The angle of rest ( O? ) was calculated by the eq.1 and 2 ( Banker, 1987 ) .

tan O? = H / r 1

O? = tan-1 ( h / R ) 2

Where, O? = Angle of rest, H = tallness of the heap ( centimeter ) and R = radius ( centimeter ) of the heap.

Loose Bulk denseness ( LBD )

The sample under trial was screened through sieve # 18 and the weight of sample equivalent to 25 g was filled in 50 milliliter graduated cylinder. The volume was noted and the loose majority denseness was calculated in g/ cm3 by the combining weight. 3.

LBD = Weight of the Powder/ Volume of the wadding 3

Tapped Bulk Density ( TBD )

The sample under trial was screened through sieve # 18 and the weight of sample equivalent to 25 g was filled in 50 milliliter graduated cylinder. The mechanical tapping of the cylinder was carried out utilizing tapped denseness examiner ( ……………… ) at a nominal rate of 300 beads per min for 2 min. The tapped denseness was calculated in g/ cm3 by the combining weight. 4.

TBD = Weight of the powder/ Tapped volume of the wadding 4

Compressibility Index

The squeezability index of the micro domains was determined by Carr ‘s squeezability index and it has shown in combining weight. 5.

Carr ‘s Index ( % ) = ( TBD – LBD ) / TBD x 100 5

Where, TBD = Tapped denseness, LBD = Loose Bulk denseness

Hausner ratio ( HR )

The ratio of TBD to LBD was related to bury atom clash and could be used to foretell micro domains flow belongingss. Hausner ratio can be calculated utilizing the combining weight. 6.


Where, TBD = Tapped Bulk Density, LBD = Loose Bulk denseness

Particle Size Analysis

Particle size distribution was analyzed by puting 15 g of the formulated micro domains in a set of standard trial screens and shaken for a 30 min utilizing Indian Standard Sieves # 16, # 20, # 30, # 40, # 60 and # 80 in a sieve shaker ( ………………………… ) . The atoms collected in each screen were weighed, the per centum atoms retained was calculated and rom this mean atom size was calculated.

Percentage output

The percent output of each batch of preparation was calculated utilizing the combining weight. 7.

% output = ( weight of microspheres ) /weight of solid get downing stuff -100 ( 7 )

Surface associated drug content

The Ranitidine Hydrochloride encapsulated micro domains were evaluated for surface associated drug content on the surface of micro domains. From each batch, 100 milligram of micro domains was shaken in 20 milliliter of 0.1N HCl for 5 min and so filtered through what adult male filter paper 41. The sum of drug nowadays in filtrate was determined spectroscopically and calculated as a per centum of entire drug content ( Gohel and Amin, 1998 ) . All the experiments were conducted in triplicate ( n=3 ) .

Appraisal of drug loading/incorporation efficiency

Drug loaded micro domains equivalent to 100 milligram of Ranitidine Hydrochloride was suspended in H2O and so sonicated ( Power sonic 505, Hwashin engineering carbon monoxide, Korea ) for approximately 20 min. It was shaken for 20 min in mechanical shaker ( Orbitex, Scigenics biotech, India ) for the complete extraction of drug from the micro spheres. The mixture was filtered through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter ( Millipore, Bangalore, India ) . Drug content was determined by dual beam UV/visible spectrophotometer ( Elico SL210, Hyderabad, India ) at 313 nanometer. The per centum of drug entrapped was calculated utilizing the combining weight. 8.

Entire incorporation efficiency =surface associated drug + entrapped drug ( 8 )

Determination of wall thickness

Wall thickness of micro domains was determined by the combining weight. 9. ( Dubey and Parikh 2004 ) All the experiments units were studied in triplicate ( n=3 ) .

H = [ R ( 1-P ) d1/3 { Pd2+ ( 1-P ) d1 } ] – 100 ( 9 )

Where, h= wall thickness, R = arithmetic mean radius of micro domains,

d1 and d2 = densenesss of nucleus and coat stuff severally,

P = proportion of medicine in micro domains.

Appraisal of Ranitidine Hydrochloride

The content of Ranitidine Hydrochloride in the micro domains was estimated by a dual beam UV/visible spectrophotometer based on the measuring of optical density at 313 nanometers in 0.1 M Hydrochloric acid. The method obeyed Beer ‘s jurisprudence ( at 1 to 10 mg/ml ) . The average mistake and preciseness were found to be 0.9 % and 1.0 % severally. These experiments were conducted for six times.

Drug Release Study

In vitro drug disintegration surveies were performed utilizing USP type I dissolution apparatus ( DR-3, Campbell Electronics, Mumbai, India ) at 75 revolutions per minute. The micro domains were weighed and filled in the empty capsule shells and placed in the basket. The disintegration medium ( 900ml ) consisted of 0.1M HCl for first 2 H and so changed to phosphate buffer pH 7.4 from 3rd to 12th H ; Temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5oC. A 5 milliliter sample was withdrawn at specific clip intervals and replaced with an tantamount volume of disintegration fluid. Drug content was determined by dual beam UV/visible spectrophotometer at 313 nanometer. The release surveies were conducted in triplicate ( Ibrahim, 2002 ) .

In vitro drug release kinetic surveies

The exact mechanism of Ranitidine Hydrochloride release from the microsphere was farther studied by kinetic theoretical accounts. The drug release informations was analyzed by nothing order, first order, Higuchi ( Higuchi, 1963 ) , Korsmeyer Peppas ( Peppas, 1989 ) and Hixson Crowell theoretical accounts ( Hixson, 1931 ) . The standard for choosing the most appropriate theoretical account were chosen on the footing of goodness of fit trial.

Scaning Electron Microscopic ( SEM ) surveies

The surface morphology of selected micro domains ( F-6 ) was studied by SEM analysis utilizing scanning negatron microscope ( FE-SEM, Carl Zeiss, Germany ) . The samples were coated with 200Ao thickness gold prior to microscopy. The SEM exposure were shown in Figure 10.

Accelerated Stability surveies

The promising preparations ( F-5 and F-6 ) were tested for stableness at stressed storage conditions of temperature ( 40±2oC ) and Relative humidness ( 75±5 % RH ) . The percent drug content after accelerated stableness surveies was determined ( Remunan, 1992 ) .


The Ranitidine Hydrochloride sample was found to be freely soluble in H2O and in methyl alcohol, meagerly soluble in ethyl alcohol and really somewhat soluble in methylene chloride. The runing point of the obtained drug sample was found to be 132oC which is within the reported bound 133.5oC. The pure drug showed ? soap at 303 nanometers in UV spectral survey and the drug showed characteristic extremums of Ranitidine Hydrochloride bespeaking the pureness of the drug sample.

The FTIR spectrum of Ranitidine Hydrochloride showed characteristic extremums at moving ridge Numberss 3431.82 ( 3300-3500 ) ( N-H ) , 2991.84 ( 2850-3000 ) ( C-H ) , 3238.31, 3174.70, 3090.42, 2904.20, 2789.18, 2668.68, 2599.76 ( 3300-2500 ( O-H ) , 1249.44 ( 1350-1550 ) ( N=O ) , 1063.86 ( 1220-1020 ) ( C-N ) and 1002.71 ( 1000-1300 ) ( C-O ) ( Figure 3 ) . Infrared soaking up spectrum of placebo tablet blend spectrum showed outstanding extremums at moving ridge Numberss 2920.0 ( 2850-3000 ) ( C-H ) , 3435.16 ( 3300-3500 ) ( N-H ) , 3002.79, 2887.74, 2816.03 ( 3300-2500 ) ( O-H ) , 1299.38, 1173.24 ( 1000-1300 ) ( C-O ) ( Figure 4 ) . The major FTIR extremums observed in formulated tablet blend ( F-5 ) were 3441.60 ( 3300-3500 ) ( N-H ) , 2925.73, ( 2850-3000 ) ( C-H ) , 2860.38 ( 3300 – 2500 ( O-H ) , 1453.69, 1381.54 ( 1350-1550 ) ( N=O ) , 1242.45, ( 1220 -1020 ) ( C-N ) and 1151.14 ( 1000-1300 ) ( C-O ) . ( All these values were represented in cm-1 ) . This indicates that there were no chemical mutual exclusiveness between Ranitidine Hydrochloride with polymers and excipient used ( Ethyl cellulose, Gellan gum, Karaya gum and Titanium dioxide ) .

The angle of rest of formulated micro domains was ranged from 22.26±0.18 to 28.12±0.25o which indicates the micro domains have first-class flow belongingss ( 25-30o ) . The Loose Bulk denseness of preparations was ranged from to 0.419±0.02 to 0.741±0.05 g/cm3 and the tapped Bulk denseness of preparations were ranged from 0.584±0.08 to 0.875±0.05 g/cm3. The squeezability Index was 15.55±0.12 for the preparation F-6 indicating good squeezability belongingss ( 12-16 % ) . The Hausner ratio was ranged from 0.010±0.001 to 1.176±0.001. All these values were represented in table 2.

The mean atom sizes of F-1 to F-6 preparations were Particle size 515.45±5.5, 494.78±2.6, 512.62±5.9, 502.23±7.8, 504.91±6.2 and 498.52±2.5 ?m severally, bespeaking the uniformity in atom size. The per centum outputs of among formulated micro domains, F-6 showed highest per centum output of 86.75±0.24 % . The surface associated drug content was least for F-6 ( 10.41±0.09 ) . High drug entrapment efficiency was observed to the preparation F-6 and it was 92.58±2.39 % . The wall thickness of formulated micro domains was ranged from 15.54±0.02 to 19.25±0.35?m. The wall thickness of formulated micro domains was found to be increased as addition in ratio of polymer. All these values were shown in Table 3.

In vitro drug release dynamicss informations surveies indicate that the preparations either followed zero order release or the Higuchi release theoretical account. Ranitidine Hydrochloride release from micro domains was diffusion controlled. The kinetic values of in vitro disintegration informations was tabulated in Table 4, 5 and represented in Figures 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The accelerated stableness revealed that the optimized micro domains ( F-5 and F-6 ) were stable even at accelerated storage conditions. The drug content in the preparation after stableness surveies were tabulated in Table 6. The SEM consequences shows that the micro domains were spherical and with a smooth surface. The SEM exposure were shown in Figure 10.


The Ranitidine Hydrochloride micro domains prolonged drug release for 12 H or longer. The survey concluded that combination of man-made ( Ethyl Cellulose ) and natural polymers ( Gellan and Karaya gums ) with high denseness stuff ( Titanium dioxide ) as gastro recollective drug bringing systems stays every bit good combination for fixing gastro recollective drug bringing systems.

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