History Of Physics Essay, Research Paper
History Of Physicss
Essay written by: straw_berry_4
Physicss began when adult male foremost started to analyze his milieus. Early applications of natural philosophies include the innovation of the wheel and of crude arms. The people who built Stone Henge had a cognition of physical mechanics in order to travel the stones and put them on top of each other. It was non until during the period of Grecian civilization that the first systematic intervention of natural philosophies started with the usage of mechanics.
Thales of Miletus ( 636BC. & # 8211 ; 546BC. )
Thales is frequently said to hold been the first scientist, and the first Greek philosopher. He was an uranologist, merchandiser and mathematician, and after sing Egypt he is said to hold originated the scientific discipline of deductive geometry. He besides discovered theorems of simple geometry and is said to hold right predicted an occultation of the Sun. Many of his surveies were in uranology but he besides observed inactive electricity.
Phythogoras ( 582BC. & # 8211 ; 497BC. )
Phythogoras was a Grecian philosopher. He discovered simple numerical ratios associating the musical tones of major consonant rhymes, to the length of the strings used in sounding them. The Pythagorean theorem was named after him, although this cardinal statements of deductive geometry was most likely first an thought from Egyptian methods of measurings. With the aid of his followings he discovered that the Earth was a sphere, but he did non believe it revolved around the su
Democritus ( 470BC. & # 8211 ; 380BC. )
Democritus was the leader of a group called Atomists. Although they were unable to turn out that affair was made up of little atoms, they were the first to come up with the thought. Democritus believed that atoms differed in size, form, and motion but were all made of the same substances.
Aristotle ( 384BC. & # 8211 ; 332BC. )
Aristotle was the most of import scientific philosopher in Greece. He believed that all affair on Earth consisted of four pure substances or elements, which were Earth, air, fire, and H2O. He besides believed that the Earth was the Centre of the existence, and that anything beyond the Earth consisted of a 5th pure substance called ether.
Archimedes ( 287-212B.C. )
Archimedes was an discoverer and mathematician, who discovered several basic scientific rules and developed a figure of mensurating techniques.
Ptolemy ( 100AD. )
Ptolemy was an Egyptian uranologist. He developed a theoretical account for foretelling the places of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Like Aristotle, he believed that the Earth was the Centre of the existence.
The Middle Ages
Between 400 AD. and 1000 AD. most educated people in western Europe looked to religion instead than scientific probe to reply their inquiries about the Torahs of nature. At the same clip Arabic bookmans were rectifying Ptolemy system of uranology and executing experiments in optics and mechanics. As trade increased between Arab states and western states, their work and Grecian scientific paperss became available to western civilization. During the 1200 & # 8217 ; s St. Thomas Aquinas reconciled Aristotle & # 8217 ; s beliefs with church rules. During this clip Roger Bacon an English bookman conducted surveies in optics.
During the Renaissance there were many societal, economic and political alterations that produced new attacks to science. The celebrated Italian painter Leonardo district attorney Vinci conducted surveies in gesture and fluid mechanicss. The Polish uranologist Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a system in which the Sun was placed at the Centre of the existence and the Earth was one of the planets revolving the Sun. In the 1600 & # 8217 ; s Johannes Kepler, a German uranologist constructed a new and accurate theoretical account of the solar system. Rene Descartes, a Gallic philosopher and mathematician developed the construct of inactiveness ( that objects maintain their province of gesture unless disturbed ) . At this clip people began to gain that the physical universe was governed by natural Torahs and that it was possible to detect those Torahs through careful measuring under controlled conditions. Galileo, an Italian physicist developed a figure of telescopes to analyze the celestial spheres, and performed laboratory experiments on the gesture of falling organic structures.
1600 & # 8211 ; 1800
In the 1600 & # 8217 ; s there was a great trade of scientific activity. Sir Isaac Newton, an English scientist, published his Mathematical Princ
iple of Natural Philosophy. He developed three Torahs of gesture and a jurisprudence of cosmopolitan gravity based on the work of Galileo and Descartes. He besides invented a new signifier of mathematics called Calculus.
The Industrial Revolution
During the Industrial Revolution scientific instruments were produced which were more accurate and enabled scientists to execute more complicated experiments. Peoples began specialising in specific countries such as: Heat and Energy, Light, and Electricity and Magnetism. Scientists began to larn that heat was able to make work. James Joule, and English physicist, devised a manner to cipher how much work a give measure of heat could make. Later a figure of Physicists proposed the Law of Conservation of Energy ( energy can neither be created nor destroyed, merely transformed from one signifier to another ) . In the early 1800 & # 8217 ; s the theory was developed that visible radiation existed in the signifier of moving ridges. Physicists believed that all infinite was filled with quintessence and that light energy was the quiver of the quintessence. There were other development in the survey of electricity and magnetic attraction, for illustration Count Alessandro Volta of Italy invented the electric battery ; Andre Marie Ampere and Hans Christian showed that electricity and magnetic attraction were related, and Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry showed how mechanical energy could be converted into electrical energy. At the terminal of the 1800 & # 8217 ; s many physicists believed that all the Torahs refering the existence had been discovered.
History of Physicss in Canada
The first Physicists in Canada taught at universities and did really small research. When Ernest Rutherford studied radiation at McGill University, he inspired other Physicists to make more research. In 1930 James Hillier helped to construct the first negatron microscope while he was a pupil at the University of Toronto. With fiscal aid from the National Research Council scientists have developed the CANDU atomic power reactor. Gerhard Herzberg received a Nobel Prize for his surveies of the ways atoms and molecules give off and absorb visible radiation. The Alouette orbiters which were launched in the 1960 & # 8217 ; s have helped Physicists to analyze matter high above the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface.
At the bend of the 20th century the apprehension of the physical existence changed wholly when Antoine Henri Becquerel and Wilhelm Roentgen discovered radiation and X raies. A general, theoretical image for the coevals of X raies emerged after Niels Bohr developed the first atomic theory. At this clip Physicists realized that they had to review the philosophical foundations of their work. In making so, the populace saw them as intellectuals who probed the dark enigmas of the existence. Physical cognition was reorganized and the theories of quantum mechanics were formulated.
Up until this clip most Physicists worked at universities chiefly in German-speaking Europe. Then research moved to new states where it was supported by industry, National Research Council, or private foundations.
Max Planck, a German physicist, published his Quantum Theory of Energy Transfer. Later, Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg initiated the development of the field of quantum mechanics. Albert Einstein showed how mass and energy are related in his celebrated equation E = mc2.
Research in natural philosophy has led to of import progresss in engineering, for illustration: in 1947 American physicists invented the & # 8220 ; Transistor & # 8221 ; which revolutionized the electronics industry, and in the early 1960 & # 8217 ; s physicists produced optical masers which are light magnifying devices and are valuable tools in countries such as communications, industry, and medical specialty.
Governments have become interested in advancing scientific probe. The United States and the Soviet Union have carried out extended research on thermonuclear arms and started a infinite plan.
Physicss has evolved greatly from when crude adult male devised ways to travel heavy objects to the complex scientific research that is being done today. Physics has besides moved from being a subdivision of Philosophy in Aristotle & # 8217 ; s twenty-four hours to being a really exact scientific discipline today. Physicists are still seeking cognition refering the Torahs of nature and the existence and are involved in many diverse countries of research, such as, biophysics, astrophysics, solid-state natural philosophies, and familial technology. Physicist no longer believe, as they one time did, that everything is now known refering the existence and are invariably seeking for new truths.