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Seaweed or benthal Marine algae are the group of workss that live either in Marine or brackish H2O environment. Like the land workss seaweed contains photosynthetic pigments and with the aid of sunshine and alimentary nowadays in the saltwater, they photosynthesize and produce nutrient. Seaweeds are found in the coastal part between high tide to low tide and in the sub-tidal part up to a deepness where 0.01 % photosynthetic visible radiation is available. The application of seaweed fertiliser for different harvest was of great importance to replace the commercial chemical fertilisers and to cut down the cost of production. Liquid fertilisers derived from seaweeds are found to be superior to chemical fertilisers due to high degree of organic affair, micro and macro elements, vitamins and fatty acids and besides rich in growing regulators. In the present survey the consequence of seaweed liquid fertiliser prepared from different seaweeds Grateloupia lithophila ( Red algae ) , Chaetomorpha Linum ( Green Algae ) , Sargassum wightii ( Brown algae ) at different concentrations ( 10 % , 20 % , 30 % , 40 % , 50 % , 100 % ) on the works Cajanus cajan were studied. At 30 % concentration the SLF prepared from Chaetomorpha Linum showed maximal growing parametric quantities on Cajanus cajan. Similarly SLF of Sargassum wightii promoted maximal photosynthetic pigments and biochemical parametric quantities at 20 % concentration than the control. Among the three seaweeds used Sargassum wightii and Chaetomorpha Linum showed better consequences than the Grateloupia lithophila at lower concentration. ( SLF- Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer ) .

Introduction

Seaweeds are the macroscopic Marine algae found attached to the underside in comparatively shallow coastal Waterss. They grow in the intertidal, shoal and deep sea countries upto 180 metre deepness and besides in estuaries and backwaters on the solid substrate such as stones, dead corals and pebbles. The seaweeds are wholly different from higher workss as they neither have true foliages, roots and roots nor vascular systems with specialised variety meats. Seaweeds are classified into three groups viz. green ( Chlorophyceae ) , brown ( Phaeophyceae ) , ruddy ( Rhodophyceae ) based on their pigments like chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobilins. Seaweeds are one of the most of import marine resources of the universe and being used as human nutrient, animate being provender and natural stuff for many industries. Seaweeds are rich in minerals, protein, lipid, saccharide, vitamins, Br, iodine etc. So algae have been harvested by adult male for centuries peculiarly in China and Japan where they form a portion of the basic nutrient. Seaweeds have been used as manure, cowss feed, nutrient for human ingestion and as a beginning of phycocolloids such as agar, alginic acid and carrageenin ( Chapman, 1970 ) .

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Seaweed fertiliser is a natural bioactive stuff, H2O soluble derived from Marine macro algae. Seaweed infusion is a new coevals of natural organic fertilisers incorporating extremely effectual, alimentary and promotes faster coevals of seeds and increase output and immune ability of many harvests. Seaweed fertiliser could be absorbed by works within several hours after application and safe to human, animate beings and environment. The turning agricultural patterns need more fertilisers for higher output to fulfill nutrient for human existences. The seaweed extracts contain works growing endocrines, regulators, boosters, saccharides, aminic acids, antibiotics, auxins, gibberellins and vitamins accordingly which heighten the output and quality which are bring on the output of harvests, seed sprouting, opposition to ice, fungous and insect onslaughts ( Erulan et al. , 2009 ) . An equal sum of K, N, growings advancing endocrines, micronutrients, humic acid etc. present in seaweeds make it as first-class fertiliser, fertilisers derived from seaweeds ( Fucus, Laminaria, Ascophyllum and Sargassum ) are biodegradable, atoxic, nonpolluting and not risky to human, animate beings and birds. Chemical fertilisers have degraded the birthrate of the dirt by doing it acidic, rendering it unsuitable for raising harvests. Seaweed manure besides increasing the dirt birthrate increases the wet keeping capacity and supplies adequate hint elements at that place by bettering the dirt construction ( Dhargalkar and Neelam Pereira, 2005 ) .

Recently adopted technique, of spraying fertiliser on the workss has increased alimentary soaking up in the workss. Leaves absorb food within 10 to 15 proceedingss of its application. Many trade names of seaweed liquid fertilisers like Maxicrop ( UK ) , Kelpak 66 ( South Africa ) , Seagrow ( New Zealand ) , Algifert ( Norway ) , plantozyme, Shaaktizyme ( India ) etc are available in the market. The diluted infusion when sprayed on workss, addition in rate of growing, opposition of growing, opposition to plagues, higher output of 25 to 30 % etc. Experiments on the usage of seaweeds as manure have been carried out by ( Thivy, 1960 ) , who showed higher rate of growing and higher output in harvest workss. Bhosle et al. , ( 1975 ) prepared a sea weed liquid fertiliser [ SLF ] and studied its effects on phaseolus vulgaris. Rama rao ( 1979 ) reported good outputs of zizyphus rugosa fruits, where foliage spray of SLF obtained from Sargassum was used. Seaweed manures have the advantage of being free from weeds and infective Fungi. Seaweeds are known to incorporate appreciable measures of works growing regulators ( Mooney and Vanstaden, 1985 ) , IAA ( Abe et al. , 1972 ) , gibberellins and gibberellin like substance ( Radley, 1961 ; Sekar et al. , 1995 ) . Hence marine algae, peculiarly seaweeds have critical function to play in agribusiness, particularly in 3rd universe state where irrational usage of chemical fertiliser and pesticides is a cause of concern.

Main seaweed extract known to play utile function in agribusiness are Maxicrop, Algifert, Germar GA14, Kelpak 66, Seaspray, Seasol, S.M.3, Seacrop16, Citex10, Cytokin11, Algistim12, Biozyme, Ujazyme, Agrimore13, Seamac and Alginex14, and MAC8. Application of seaweed infusion as an organic biostimulant is fast going unacceptable pattern in gardening ( Turan K & A ; Kose M, 2004 ) . Seaweed liquid fertiliser contained macro foods, hint elements, organic substances like amino acids and works growing regulators such as Auxin, Cytokinin and Gibberellins ( Williams et al. , 1981 ) .

The usage of natural seaweed merchandises as replacements to the conventional man-made fertilisers has assumed importance. In agribusiness, the application of seaweeds are so many, as dirt conditioners, fertilisers and green manure, due to the presence of high sum of K salts, micronutrients and growing substances. The present survey is extra information for an surrogate to man-made fertilisers and farther survey is necessary to compensate the restraints. Seaweed liquid fertiliser ( SLF ) contained macronutrients, hint elements, organic substances like amino acids and works growing regulators such as auxin, cytokinin and gibberellins. They are peculiarly suited content ( Chapman and Chapman, 1980 ) , it has been proved that SLF promoted, the growing and the output of harvest workss ( Nelson and Van Staden, 1984 ; Rama Rao 1991 ; Rama Rao, 1992 ) . The SLF obtained from brown, ruddy and green seaweeds are now available commercially in trade names such as ‘Maxicrop ‘ ( sea born ) , ‘Algifert ‘ ( Manure ) , ‘Golmar ‘ , ‘GA 14 ‘ , ‘Kelpak 66 ‘ , ‘Seaspray ‘ , ‘Seasol ‘ , ‘SM3 ‘ , ‘Cytex and Seacrop 16 ‘ for usage in agribusiness ( Jeanin et al. , 1991 ) . Beneficial effects from the usage of seaweed infusions as natural regulators have included increased harvest output, hold of fruit aging, improved overall works energy, improved output measure and quality, and better ability to defy inauspicious environmental conditions ( Featonby-Smith and Van Staden, 1983 ) . Application of seaweed infusion as organic biostimulant is fast going recognized pattern in gardening due to its good effects ( Verkleij, 1992 ) . In recent old ages, seaweed infusions as liquid fertilisers have come in market. Recent researches have proved that SLF is better than other chemical fertilisers ( Rajkumar Immanuel and Subramanian, 1999 ) . Seaweeds have late gained importance as foliar sprays for several harvests ( Thivy, 1961 ; Metha et al. , 1967 ; Bokil et al. , 1974 ) because the infusion contains growing advancing endocrines ( IAA and IBA ) , cytokinins, hint elements, vitamins and aminic acids ( Challen and Hemingway, 1965 ) . Seaweed fertiliser was found to be superior to chemical fertiliser because to the high degree of organic affair AIDSs in retaining wet and minerals in the upper dirt degree available to roots ( Wallen Kemp, 1955 ) .

The pulse harvest take for this survey is Cajuns Cajan ( Pigeon pea ) it is an of import grain leguminous plant normally grown and consumed in tropical and semitropical parts of the universe. India histories for over 80 % of the universe supply of pigeon pea [ ICRISAT, 1986 ] . The pigeon pea is a perennial member of the household Fabaceae. Pigeon pea is a rich beginning of protein, saccharides and certain minerals. It is made of three anatomical constructions ; the seed coat, the seed leafs and the embryologic tissue. It is the major pulse harvest of the semiarid Torrid Zones, has been used for centuries in intercropping systems, and is an ideal beginning of fresh fish, nutrient and firewood in agro forestry systems.

About 700 kg/fed, traditionally it is grown in North and Central Sudan as minor harvest, and is locally known as ( Labia addasy ) and consumed as poached dry grain peculiar during the month of Ramadan [ ICRISAT, 1993 ] . Pigeon peas were reported to incorporate wet, 15.2 ; protein, 22.3 ; fat ( ether infusion ) , 1.7 ; mineral affair, 3.6 ; saccharide, 57.2 ; Ca, 9.1 ; and P, 0.26 % ; provitamin A evaluated as vitamin A, 220 IU and vitamin B1, 150 IU per 100 g. Sun-dried seeds ofA Cajanus cajanA are reported to incorporate ( per 100 g ) 345 Calories, 9.9 % wet, 19.5 g protein, 1.3 g fat, 65.5 g saccharide, 1.3 g fibre, 3.8 g ash, 161 milligram Ca, 285 milligram P, 15.0 milligram Fe, 55A mgA b-carotene equivalent, 0.72 milligram vitamin B1, 0.14 milligram vitamin B2, and 2.9 milligram nicotinic acid. ( Duke, 1981 ) .

The present survey has been designed to measure the consequence of seaweed liquid fertiliser on the growing, photosynthetic pigments and biochemical composing of Cajanus cajan ( L. ) Millsp.

To fix seaweed liquid fertiliser at different concentrations

To handle the harvest works with different concentration of seaweed liquid fertiliser viz. , 10 % , 20 % ,

To analyze the morphological features like shoot length, root length, dry weight and fresh weight of the workss after seaweed liquid fertiliser intervention.

To analyse the biochemical features like lipid, protein, aminic acid content of the workss after application of seaweed liquid fertiliser.

To measure the pigment content ( carotenoids, chlorophyll ‘a ‘ , chlorophyll ‘b ‘ and entire chlorophyll ) of the workss after seaweed liquid fertiliser intervention.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

STUDY AREA:

The survey country of the sample aggregation was Vellar estuary, Parangipettai. The Vellar estuary is located at Porto Novo ( Lat.11A°29 ; Long. 79A°46 ‘ Tocopherol ) . Having its beginning in the Servarayan hills in Salem territory in Tamil Nadu, South Arcot District for over distance of 480 kilometers and drains into Bay of Bengal at Porto Novo.

Figure: 3.1 Map demoing Vellar estuary

Seaweed:

The three seaweed species used in this survey are Grateloupia lithophila Boergesen, Sargassum wightii Greville, Chaetomorpha Linum ( Muller ) Kutzing

Collection OF Sample:

Three seaweed samples ( I ) Chaetomorpha Linum ( two ) Grateloupia lithophila ( three ) Sargassum wightii were collected from the vellar estuary, Parangipettai during the month of January 2010. The algal sample was manus picked and washed exhaustively with saltwater to take all the drosss, sand atoms and air plants. It was kept in an ice box incorporating slush ice, transported to the research lab and washed exhaustively utilizing tap H2O to take the salt on the surface of the sample. The H2O was drained away and the algal stuff was spread on blotting paper to take extra H2O. They were shade dried. The dried seaweeds are eventually pulverized in the commercial bomber and the powdery seaweed samples are used for farther analysis.

COLLECTION OF SEEDS:

The harvest works, selected for the present survey was Cajanus cajan is an of import works cultivated throughout the Indian subcontinent. The seeds for the survey intent were collected from regional pulsations research station, Tamilnadu agricultural University, Vamban, Pudukottai territory, Tamilnadu, India. Healthy seeds free from seeable infection with unvarying size, coloring material and size were segregated and so stored in metal Sn containers as suggested by Rao ( 1976 ) and used for experimental intent.

Preparation OF SEAWEED LIQUID FERTILIZER ( SLF ) :

The seaweed liquid fertiliser was prepared by the method of Rama Rao ( 1990 ) . The harsh pulverization of seaweeds was assorted with distilled H2O in the ratio of 1: 20 ( W/V ) . It is so autoclaved at 121° C, 20 pound for 20 proceedingss. The mixture was filtered through cheese fabrics and the filtrate was collected at 4A° C. The supernatant was centrifuged and dried on an oven at 60° C for 48 hours. Then 100 % seaweed infusion was collected utilizing distilled H2O.

SEED SOAKING AND PLANT CULTURE:

The seaweed liquid fertiliser was prepared with different doses viz. , 10 % , 20 % , 30 % , 40 % , 50 % , and 100 % . Then the sowing seeds were soaked in peculiar doses of SLF for 12hrs. One batch of seeds was kept as control and treated with H2O. Then the seeds were sowed and observed for sprouting and early growing. In this experiment polyethylene bags were used for raising the harvests which is filled with 5kg of the garden dirt for works civilization. Ten seeds were sown at a deepness of 1.5 centimeters in each bag. The polyethylene bags were labeled in peculiar doses and rearranged at regular intervals so as to guarantee unvarying environmental impact on the workss growing. The weeds were removed on a regular basis and irrigating was done one time in 2 yearss for the trial workss.

Analysis:

Plants from each intervention were indiscriminately drawn for assorted analyses. Plants from the bags were uprooted carefully and washed in tap H2O. They were so processed for different analyses. All the parametric quantities such as growing and biochemical characters were analyzed merely at the terminal of 45 yearss after seed sowing. Triplicate samples were used for all the parametric quantities and the average values were presented.

GROWTH Parameters:

Measurement of Root length and Shoot length:

The shoot length was measured from the collar part to tip of the shoot and the root length was calculated from the collar part to tip of the primary root. The average values were expressed in centimeter. ( Erulan et al. , 2009 ) .

Measurement of Fresh weight and Dry weight:

The uprooted workss were washed and separated into root and shoot ; they were blotted in blotting paper and weighed. They were dried in a hot air oven at 80° C for 24 hours and so dry weight was taken by utilizing an electrical individual pan balance. The average values were expressed in mg g-1.fr.wt. ( Erulan et al. , 2009 )

Photosynthetic Pigments:

Appraisal of Chlorophyll:

Chlorophyll was estimated spectrophotometrically harmonizing to the method of Arnon ( 1949 ) .

Appraisal of Carotenoids ( Kirk and Allen, 1965 ) :

The same chlorophyll infusion was measured at 480 nanometers in spectrophotometer to gauge the Carotenoid content. Carotenoid: Aµg/g.fr.wt. = a?†A.480 + ( 0.114 X a?†A. 663 ) – ( 0.638 X a?†A. 645 ) . a?†A = Optical density at several moving ridge length.

Appraisal of Entire sugar:

The entire sugar content was estimated by Anthrone method ( Roe, 1955 ) .

Extraction and Estimation of Lipid:

The lipoid was estimated by utilizing trichloromethane methyl alcohol mixture as described by Folch et al. , ( 1956 ) .

Extraction and Estimation of Total Amino acids:

The entire amino acid content of algal species was determined harmonizing to the method of Moore and Stein ( 1948 ) .

Appraisal of Protein:

The protein was estimated by Biurette method ( Raymont et al. , 1964 )

3. Result

Statistical analysis was calculated by one manner ANOVA followed by Student ‘s Newman Keul ‘s trial.

Growth parametric quantities:

Root length:

The root length of the workss varied from 1.86A±0.5 to 5.06A±0.4 cm/seedlings. The maximal root length recorded was 5.06A±0.4 cm/seedlings in the workss that received 30 % SLF of Chaetomorpha Linum ( Green algae ) . The values of root length of the workss after the application of SLF were presented in the Figure 1.

Shoot length:

The shoot length of the workss varied from 11.25A±1.8 to 13.1A±1.7 cm/seedlings. The maximal shoot length noted was 13.1A±1.7 in the workss that received 30 % SLF of Chaetomorpha Linum. The values of shoot length of the workss were presented in the Figure 2.

Fresh weight:

Fresh weight of the Cajanus cajan varied from 6.03A±1.7 to 8.98A±1.8 milligrams g-1.fr.wt.The consequences of fresh weight of the workss were presented in the Figure 3.

Dry weight:

The dry weight of Cajanus cajan ranged from 0.262A±6.0 to 0.459A±9.0 milligrams g-1.fr.wt. The consequences of the dry weight of the workss after the application of seaweed liquid fertiliser were depicted in the Figure 4. Figure 1 Root length of Cajanus cajan

Figure 2 Shoot length of Cajanus cajan

Figure 3 Fresh weight of Cajanus cajan

Figure 4 Dry weight of Cajanus cajan

Photosynthetic pigments:

The photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll ‘a ‘ , chlorophyll ‘b ‘ , entire chlorophyll and carotenoid content of Cajanus cajan after the application of seaweed liquid fertiliser ( SLF ) of Grateloupia lithophila, Chaetomorpha Linum and Sargassum wightii were estimated and presented in the tabular array 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4. The maximal chlorophyll ‘a ‘ ( 19.17A±1.00 ) and chlorophyll ‘b ‘ ( 14.74A±2.51 ) and carotenoid ( 0.80A±3.51 ) and entire chlorophyll ( 966.95A±1.52 ) was recorded in the workss that treated with 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii.

Table 1 Chlorophyll content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

16.27A±3.0

15.95A±2.0

7.97A±2.0

6.61A±2.0

4.73A±2.0

4.27A±1.5

7.45A±2.0

C.linum

10.85A±2.0

10.07A±1.5

8.09A±1.5

7.56A±2.0

6.24A±2.0

4.67A±2.0

7.45A±2.0

S.wightii

8.5A±0.20

19.17A±1.0

7.77A±2.0

5.03A±1.5

3.87A±2.0

1.58A±2.0

7.45A±2.0

Table 2 Chlorophyll ‘b ‘ content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

5.46A±0.2

8.49A±2.0

4.87A±2.0

3.55A±2.0

3.25A±2.0

1.96A±1.5

6.70A±1.0

C.linum

2.77A±1.5

6.29A±2.0

5.96A±1.0

5.33A±2.0

4.19A±2.0

1.18A±2.5

6.70A±1.0

S.wightii

4.25A±1.5

14.74A±2.5

12.96A±1.

10.73A±2

6.40A±0.2

0.57A±0.2

6.70A±1.0

Table 3 Entire chlorophyll content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

130.67A±2.0

805.74A±0.5

751.76A±2.6

745.57A±2.0

235.43A±2.0

166.52A±0.5

316.33A±1.1

C. Linum

611.07A±1.5

570.73A±2.0

480.37A±1.5

395.97A±2.5

393.95A±1.5

331.67A±1.5

316.33A±1.1

S.wightii

233.17A±2.0

966.95A±1.5

628.67A±2.0

414.10A±1.5

357.86A±1.5

207.05A±1.5

316.33A±1.1

Table 4 Carotenoid content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

0.54A±1.5

0.48A±2.0

0.43A±2.0

0.36A±2.0

31A±2.0

0.16A±1.5

0.26A±1.5

C.linum

0.47A±2.0

0.66A±1.5

0.55A±2.5

0.27A±2.5

0.27A±2.5

26A±3.0

0.26A±1.5

S.wightii

0.58A±2.5

0.80A±3.5

0.67A±2.0

0.55A±2.0

0.52A±2.0

0.51A±2.0

0.26A±1.5

Biochemical analysis:

The biochemical parametric quantities of the Cajanus cajan like protein, lipid, aminic acid and entire sugar content were analyzed and depicted in the tabular array 4.5, 4.6, 4.7 and 4.8. Statistical analysis was calculated by one manner ANOVA followed by Student ‘s Newman Keul ‘s trial.

Protein:

The protein content ranged from 0.21A±2.5 to 0.43A±0.3 milligrams g-1 f. wt. The maximal protein content noted was 0.43A±0.3 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that received 20 % seaweed liquid fertiliser of Sargassum wightii and the minimal protein content observed was 0.20A±1.5 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that received 20 % seaweed liquid fertiliser of Grateloupia lithophila ( Table:5 ) .

Lipids:

The lipid content varied from 4.13A±1.0 to 8.16A±2.0 milligrams g-1 f. wt. The maximal lipid content recorded was 8.16A±2.0 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that was treated with 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii and the minimal lipid content observed was 2.61A±1.0 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that received 40 % SLF of Grateloupia lithophila. ( Table:6 )

Amino acid:

The amino acerb content of Cajanus cajan varied from 1.66A±5.7 to 1.00 to 5.00A±1.0 milligrams g-1 f. wt. The maximal value noted was 5.00A±1.0 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that received 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii and the minimal value recorded was 1.33A±5.7 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that were treated with 50 % SLF of Chaetomorpha Linum and 100 % SLF of Sargassum wightii ( Table:7 ) .

Entire sugar:

The entire sugar content ranged from 1.16A±0.1 to 1.57A±2.5 milligrams g-1 f. wt. The maximal value recorded was 1.57A±2.5 mg g-1 f. wt in the workss that was treated with 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii and the minimal content was noted in the workss that were treated with 100 % SLF of Sargassum wightii ( Table:8 ) .

Table 5 Protein content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

0.22A±3.6

0.28A±1.5

0.26A±3.0

0.23A±2.6

0.21A±2.5

0.20A±1.5

0.21A±2.5

C.linum

0.25A±1.5

0.31A±3.2

0.28A±4.9

0.25A±4.5

0.23A±2.5

0.23A±2.5

0.21A±2.5

S.wightii

0.28A±2.0

0.43A±0.3

0.25A±3.3

0.24A±0.7

0.23A±2.5

0.23A±2.5

0.21A±2.5

Table 6 Lipid content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

4.44A±2.0

5.80A±0.1

5.72A±1.5

5.61A±1.5

5.61A±1.0

2.61A±1.0

4.13A±1.0

C.linum

2.65A±1.5

6.43A±2.0

4.38A±1.5

4.28A±1.5

3.60A±2.0

3.42A±1.0

4.13A±1.0

S.wightii

5.33A±1.5

8.16A±2.0

6.11A±1.5

5.55A±5.5

5.51A±1.5

5.16A±1.5

4.13A±1.0

Table 7 Amino acerb content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

2.33A±1.5

4.33A±1.5

3.66A±1.5

3.33A±1.5

2.66A±2.0

2.00A±1.0

1.66A±5.7

C.linum

2.00A±2.0

3.66A±1.5

3.33A±2.0

1.33A±5.7

1.33A±5.7

1.33A±5.7

1.66A±5.7

S.wightii

3.00A±2.6

5.00A±1.0

2.66A±2.08

2.33A±2.30

2.00A±1.0

1.33A±5.7

1.66A±5.7

Table 8 Entire sugar content of Cajanus cajan

Seaweed

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

100 %

Control

G.lithophila

0.22A±1.5

0.44A±2.0

0.33A±1.0

0.27A±2.0

0.26A±2.5

0.24A±1.5

1.16A±0.1

C.linum

0.76A±1.5

0.47A±2.0

0.45A±1.0

0.31A±1.5

0.29A±1.0

0.26A±2.6

1.16A±0.1

S.wightii

0.18A±0.2

1.57A±2.5

1.50A±0.1

0.31A±3.0

0.24A±2.6

0.16A±2.6

1.16A±0.1

4. Discussion

Seaweeds are crude non blossoming workss without root, root and foliages. They comprise one of the commercially of import Marine renewable resources. They contain different vitamins, minerals, hint elements, protein, I, Br and bioactive substances. The use of seaweed in agribusiness and gardening has a long history. Ancient Greeks and Chinese applied seaweed mulches to the dirt. Some of the commercially available liquid seaweed like Cytex, Geomar GA 14, Kelpak 66, Maxicrop sea harvest 16, Seaspray, Seamac, and Seamagic-3 etc. Booth ( 1969 ) reported that the value of seaweeds as fertiliser is non from mineral contents but from their hint elements and the metabolites similar to cytokinin, auxin, gibberellins and other related growing endocrines.

The Cajanus cajan seeds soaked in the lower concentrations of the seaweed liquid fertiliser of Chaetomorpha Linum ( 30 % ) have attained maximal growing parametric quantities ( Root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight ) than the seeds that are soaked in the higher concentrations ( 100 % ) . Vijayanand et al. , ( 2004 ) reported that lower concentration of SLF from Stoechospermum marginatum promoted the growing of eggplant and Sivasankari et al. , ( 2006a ) besides reported similar consequence in Cowpea and Ramamoorthy and Sujatha ( 2007 ) reported additive growing of both root and shoot in black gm seeds. Thirumaran et al. , ( 2006 ) reported with Chaetomorpha antennina and Rosenvingea intricata on the growing of Abelmoschus esculentus and Raphanus sativus

Stephenson ( 1974 ) recorded that lower concentration of SLF prepared from Brown algae Ascophyllum and Laminaria accelerated the growing in corn. Similar consequences were recorded in Padina, which induced maximal growing in Cajanus cajan ( Mohan et al. , 1994 ) . Dhargalkar and Untawale ( 1980 ) besides reported similar findings with Hypnea musciformis, Spatoglossum asperum, Stoechosperum marginatum and Sargassum on the growing of green chilies, Brassica rapas and Ananas comosuss. The consequence of seaweed Liquid fertilisers ( SLF ) of Caulerpa recemosa and Gracilaria edulis on growing and biochemical components of Vigna catajung has been studied by Anandharaj and Venkatesalu ( 2001 ) . The lowest concentration ( 10 % ) of aqueous infusion promoted the seedling growing, fresh and dry weight in Vigna catajung. Foliar application of SLF at lower concentration was most effectual compared to command and other concentrations of seaweed liquid fertiliser, which is in conformance with green gm and black gm ( Mohan et al. , 1994 ) . Aitken & A ; Senn ( 1965 ) and Abetz ( 1980 ) reported that SLF at really high concentrations retard works growing may be due to really high salt index observed in seaweed infusions that may be impacting growing and output.

The lower concentrations of the seaweed liquid fertiliser ( 20 % S. wightii ) promoted the maximal chlorophyll content of Cajanus cajan when compared to command. Higher concentrations decreased the chlorophyll content. A similar observation was made in Scytonema sp. ( Venkataraman Kumar and Mohan, 1997a ) , Vigna mungo ( Venkataraman Kumar and Mohan, 1997b ) and in Vigna sinensis ( Sivasankari et al. , 2006b ) . The seaweed infusion applied as foliar spray enhanced the foliage chlorophyll degree in workss ( Blunden et al. , 1996 ) . Similar consequences were besides reported by Jothinayagi and Anbazhagan, 2009. They studied the consequence of Sargassum wightii on the growing of Abelmoschus esculentus and concluded that 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii is more effectual than the control and 100 % SLF of Sargassum wightii.

Thirumaran et al. , ( 2009a ) reported that the SLF intervention of Sargassum wightii increased entire chlorophyll and carotenoids content of both the trial workss at lower concentration ( 20 % ) of SLF with or without chemical fertiliser. Whapham et al. , ( 1993 ) observed that the application of SLF of Ascophyllum nodosum increased the chlorophyll of Cucumber seed leafs and tomato workss. The seaweed liquid fertiliser ( SLF ) and seagrass liquid fertiliser ( SGLF ) non merely promoted the seedling growing but besides increased the chlorophyll ‘a ‘ and ‘b ‘ contents in the foliage up to 12 yearss of sprouting in Zea Mayss which was reported by Asir Selin Kumar et al. , ( 2004 ) .

The highest protein content was recorded at 20 % ( S.wightii ) concentration of SLF soaked intervention in Cajanus cajan. Similar consequences were obtained in Vigna sinensis that was treated with Sargassum wightii ( Sivasankari et al. , 2006b ) and they reported that 20 % SLF is more effectual than the control. The addition in the protein content at lower concentration of SLF might be due to soaking up of most of the necessary elements by the seedlings ( Kannan and Tamilselvan, 1990 ; Anantharaj and Venkatesalu, 2001 ) . The consequences coincide with the Abelmoschus esculentus that received 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii by Jothinayagi and Anbazhagan, 2009. Thirumaran et al. , ( 2009a ) Studied on the consequence of Chaetomorpha antennina and Rosenvingea intricata on seed sprouting, fruit subsiding and weight of veggie of Abelmoschus esculentus. They got better consequences at lower concentration than that of higher concentration. The growing rate was increased up to 0.50 % concentration and thereafter it showed a diminishing tendency. This consequence was co-occuring with survey of Bhosle et al. , ( 1975 ) .They showed better growing when S. tenerrimum infusion was used particularly in lower concentrations. Erulan et al. , ( 2009 ) reported that Seaweed liquid fertiliser ( SLF ) at low concentrations enhanced the growing parametric quantities viz. , shoot length, root length, leaf country, fresh weight, dry weight and wet content. Biochemical parametric quantities like chlorophyll ‘a ‘ and ‘b ‘ , protein, sugars, amylum, ascorbic acid and in vivo nitrate reductase activity were besides found higher at 1.5 % . The higher concentrations like 2, 2.5 and 5 % appeared to be the inhibitory degrees for Sorghum reported by Vijayanand et al. , ( 2004 ) .The probe on the consequence of petroleum infusion was performed utilizing the seaweed S. plagiophyllum ( SLF ) and the commercial seaweed extract-SM3 on the seed sprouting and seedling growing in green gm and black gm. Both SLF and SM3 promoted seedling growing upto a concentration of 0.75 % in black gm. Green gm showed the upper limit of 0.75 % in black gm. Green gm showed the maximal concentration of SM3 ( Venkataraman kumar et al. , 1993 ) .

The amino acid content was besides found to be high in 20 % SLF ( Sargassum wightii ) than that of the higher concentrations and control. The sugar content increased up to 20 % concentration of SLF and the content decreased at higher concentrations. Similar consequences were besides reported in Vigna sinensis by Sivasankari et al. , ( 2006a ) , the same tendency was observed in the Hypnea musciformis with NPK application in black gm ( Tamilselvan and Kannan, 1994 ) , Vigna catajung and Dolichos biflorus ( Anandharaj and Venkatesalu, 2001 ) . Jothinayagi and Anbazhagan, 2009 besides reported that the entire sugar content increased at 20 % SLF concentration in Abelmoschus esculentus after Sargassum wightii intervention and the content decreased at higher concentrations. The lipid content increased upto 20 % concentration and the content decreased at higher concentrations.

In general, it was observed that the seaweed liquid fertiliser prepared from the brown alga, Rosenvingea intricata, applied to harvest works gave better consequences in all facets of growing to give and dirty alimentary content when compared to the seaweed fertiliser of green alga ( Kannan and Tamilselvan, 1987 and Whapham, 1993 ) . Similar consequences were reported that the brown alga applied to harvest workss gave better consequences when compared to the workss that received Chaetomorpha Linum and Grateloupia lithophila. It is likely due to the presence of growing advancing endocrines and foods in more measures in the brown alga than in other groups of algae, seaweed liquid fertiliser can be applied to assorted harvest works in order to enrich the alimentary content of the dirt and intern to increase the growing and output of arable workss.

Chaetomorpha Linum showed better consequences in instance of growing parametric quantities in Cajanus cajan at 30 % SLF concentration where as the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical parametric quantities were found to be high in the workss that received 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii and thenceforth in the higher concentration it declines

5. Decision

Seaweed fertiliser is a natural bioactive stuff, water-soluble derived from Marine macro algae. Seaweed fertiliser could be absorbed by works within several hours after application and safe to worlds, animate beings and the environment. Seaweed liquid fertilisers will be utile for accomplishing higher agricultural production, because the infusion contains growing advancing endocrines, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, hint elements, vitamins, aminic acids, antibiotics and micronutrients. From the present survey, the undermentioned decision can be drawn on the consequence of seaweed liquid fertiliser on the growing and biochemical composing of Cajanus cajan: The maximal growing parametric quantity ( root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight ) was recorded in the workss that received 30 % SLF of Chaetomorpha Linum. The maximal photosynthetic pigments were observed in the workss that were treated with 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii. The maximal biochemical composing was observed in the workss that were treated with 20 % SLF of Sargassum wightii. The seaweed liquid fertiliser of Sargassum wightii is more effectual at 20 % concentration for biochemical composing and photosynthetic pigments. The 30 % SLF of Chaetomorpha Linum is more effectual in Cajanus cajan for growing parametric quantities. Based on the findings of the survey Sargassum wightii can be used as the fertiliser for the workss at 20 % concentration in order to increase the agricultural production. Among the three seaweeds used Sargassum wightii and Chaetomorpha Linum showed better consequences than the Grateloupia lithophila at lower concentration and at higher concentration it declines. Thus the SLF was found to be a good beginning of works growing but farther more research is need to strongly set up the mechanism of action of the seaweed infusion on the works growing.

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