John C. Calhoun Essay, Research Paper
John Caldwell Calhoun, solon and political philosopher, was vicepresident, a congresswoman, secretary of war, senator, secretary of province, and a taking title-holder of Southern rights. [ Netscape 1 ] Throughout his life, Calhoun kept recommending for the South and forcing for the growing of the South. Threw his calling as the vice-president, he kept forcing Jackson to assist out his chap Southerners and maintain the South alive. [ Bartlett 26 ]
He was born on a farm near Abbeville, S.C. , on Mar. 18, 1782. His male parent, Patrick Calhoun, a adult male of Scotch-Irish decent, was a really spiritual adult male that treated John really harshly. His male parent owned more than a mark of slaves, was a justice, and had served in the South Carolina legislative assembly for a piece, contending to acquire more representation for the freshly set up land that he represented.
[ Faber 74-75 ] John attended college at Yale and graduated in 1804. He studied in the jurisprudence school of Taping Reeves in Litchfield, CN. He was admitted to the South Carolina saloon in 1807 and rapidly established a pattern near his place in Abbeville. [ Von Holst 37 ] He married a distant cousin in 1811 and had 9 kids. This matrimony brought him a big luck. He enlarged his luck and in 1825 he built a plantation, called Fort Hill, in his native country. [ Bartlett 39 ]
He was a really fine-looking adult male that had piercing eyes throughout his life. In his subsequently old ages, he was thought of as a & # 8220 ; believing machine & # 8221 ; , talking really rapidly and ever really seriously. He concerned himself with political doctrine, thought, and concern. [ Niven 49 ] As one writer wrote: & # 8220 ; John C. Calhoun is best remembered as an American solon and a political philosopher. & # 8221 ; [ Netscape 1 ]
Calhoun began his political calling by being elected to the South Carolina province legislative assembly in 1808 and 2 old ages subsequently won election to the United States House of Representatives. During his Congressional term, Henry Clay made Calhoun the president of the Foreign Affairs Committee and he and other & # 8220 ; War 2 Hawks & # 8221 ; and advocated strongly for the War of 1812. [ Faber 76 ] He led the attempt in the House to construct up a strong Army, and after the war he continued to work for a stronger, military constitution. [ Niven 98 ] Calhoun entered James Monroe & # 8217 ; s Cabinet ( 1817-1825 ) as secretary of war as a patriot. [ Bracelet 87 ] He became less and less militaristic through his life. In 1812 he said that, & # 8220 ; a war, merely and necessary in its beginning, sagely and smartly carried on, and uprightly terminated. & # 8221 ; [ Niven 208 ] But in 1846, he refused to vote for the declaration of war against Mexico. He thought that the evidences that the President set for this war was incorrect and said, & # 8220 ; I regard peace as a positive good, and war as a positive evil. & # 8221 ; [ Von Holst 107 ] In 1821, John
Quinsy Adams appraised Calhoun as:
A adult male of just and blunt head & # 8230 ; of enlarged philosophical positions, and of fervent nationalism. He is above all sectional and factional biass more than any other solon of the Union. [ Bartlett 91 ] Calhoun was J. Q. Adams & # 8217 ; s frailty president from 1825-1829 and was elected vice-president once more in 1828 under Andrew Jackson. [ Netscape 1 ] This clip in history is referred to as the Nullification Crisis which refers to the Nullification of the Duty of Abominations by South Carolina and the convulsion that it caused. [ Bartlett 102 ] Calhoun had hoped to run for the presidential term after Jackson left the White House but during Jackson & # 8217 ; s first term they had their portion of struggles. Jackson discovered that Calhoun criticized his invasion of Florida in 1818 and Jackson blew a fuse. Calhoun began to contemn even the sight of Jackson. [ Morris 96 ] Calhoun anonymously wrote the & # 8220 ; South Carolina Exposition & # 8221 ; in response to the Duty of 1829 or the Duty of Abominations. He argued that the province had the right to & # 8220 ; nullify & # 8221 ; a Federal papers, if the province believed that it was unconstitutional. Calhoun believed that the Duty of 1828 was a direct onslaught on the South by dejecting the foreign markets for the cotton in the South. [ Niven 180-181 ] As one writer put it:
Calhoun had been driven by what he believed was the turning failing of his province and his subdivision in an industrialised society. Uncertain about a hereafter in which the slave-plantation system seemed to be progressively on the defensive, Calhoun, with his bad head and his latent insecurity, tended toward apologizing a possible minority place as the lone proper political logic that was blessed by Jeffersonian case in point and confirmed by historical fact. [ Niven 181 Jackson began to endanger military force to roll up the responsibilities in South
Carolina. [ Morris 165 ] In 1832, Calhoun resigned the V ice-presidency and was elected to the senate so that he could support South Carolina & # 8217 ; s cause and in 1832 South Carolina proclaimed that the Duty of 1828 was void and nothingness in the province of South Carolina. South Carolina expected the other Southern provinces to follow suit and besides nullify the Duty. This didn & # 8217 ; t occur and so Henry Clay stepped in and negotiated a via media duty that would take down the duties over many old ages. [ Netscape 1 ] That cooled things down and averted a Civil War for the clip being.
In the Senate, in the 1830s, Calhoun attacked the emancipationists, as one writer wrote:
Demanding that their publications be excluded from the mails, that their requests non be received by Congress, and eventually that a halt be put to agitation against bondage in the North as had been done in the South. [ Bartlett 210 ] By 1837, Calhoun was supporting bondage as & # 8220 ; a positive good & # 8221 ; and had become an advocator for the suppression of unfastened treatment and a free imperativeness. [ Von Holst 122 ] Calhoun & # 8217 ; s switch from national to a sectional ( South, specifically South Carolina ) place ruined his opportunities for the presidential term but he continued to strive for that office. [ Morris 199 ] He had now become bondage & # 8217 ; s strongest guardian. [ Bartlett 235 ] Although Calhoun had made it copiously clear in his letters to his friends that he was willing to run for the presidential term if chosen, no one expected him to move like a campaigner. [ Bartlett 237 ] He on occasion gave a some intimations as to his purposes. For case, he made it a point to fall in the Irish Immigrant Society of New York in order to stress his pride in being the boy of an Irish immigrant. It pulled great weight with the working category in New York. [ Bartlett 238 ] He declared his campaigning in 1843 but withdrew to accept assignment as secretary of province for the last twelvemonth of John Tyler & # 8217 ; s term. [ Niven 264 ] During his service to Tyler, Calhoun wrote a missive to the British curate in Washington, reasoning that appropriation was necessary to protect bondage in the U. S. A. and doing it a point to demo that freed Blacks are deaf, dense, blind, and insane in far higher proportions than those in bondage. This missive didn & # 8217 ; T aid his cause in Congress and the first pact for the appropriation of Texas didn & # 8217 ; t base on balls Congress. [ Von Holst 241 ] In 1844, Texas was admitted into the Union by a joint declaration of Congress. This kept sectional balance in the brotherhood by enlarging the slavery country of the U. S. A. [ Netscape 1 ] Calhoun returned to the Senate in 1845, where he foremost opposed the war against Mexico and so the Wilmot Proviso, which would hold prohibited bondage in all districts acquired from Mexico by that war. Calhoun called Mexico the & # 8220 ; forbidden fruit. & # 8221 ; He knew that if America had a war with Mexico, it would be fought for all the incorrect grounds. [ Bartlett 341 ] During his stay in the Senate, he was able to procure transition of the Gag Rules, which forbade the treatment of bondage on the floor of Congress. He denounced the Compromise of 1850, which did non vouch the right of Southerners to take their slave into 5 all districts of the Union. Unfortunately, he ne’er got the opportunity to see the Compromise of 1850 adopted. [ Niven 293 ]
It was his calamity to go the spokesman for the deceasing establishment of bondage. [ Morris 268 ] ; # 8220 ; His fierce defence of the South made him the hero of his ain part. At the same clip, it made him hated in the North during this period when sectional hostility grew progressively bitter. ; # 8221 ; [ Faber 79 ] As one writer wrote, ; # 8220 ; Calhoun ; # 8217 ; s last visual aspect in Congress was on 7 March 1850, as he heard and approved Daniel Webster ; # 8217 ; s entreaty for sectional peace. Three yearss earlier, excessively ailment to talk, Calhoun sat in the Senate as his address was read for him. he died in Washington on 31 March 1850. ; # 8221 ; [ Netscape 1 ] To reason, the words of one writer were, ; # 8220 ; Calhoun ; # 8217 ; s thought dominated the southern mind. ; # 8221 ; [ Heritage 101 ] His authorship in defence of the rights of the South as a minority part within the Union are a important part to American political theory. [ Von Holst 155 ]