Joseph Hyden Essay, Research Paper
Franz Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the classical period. He is frequently called the male parent of both the symphonic music and the twine four, and he founded what is known as the Viennese classical school, which consisted of himself, his friend, Wolfgang Mozart, and his student, Ludwig van Beethoven. During his life-time, he produced a mind-boggling sum of music. He lived from the terminal of the Baroque period to the beginning of the romantic period, and presided over the passage between them.
Franz Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, on April 1, 1732, to Mathias and Anna Maria Koller Haydn. Joseph Haydn & # 8217 ; s parents had 12 kids, but, unhappily, six of them died during babyhood. His lasting siblings included two brothers, Johann Evangelist and Johann Michael, and three sisters, Anna Maria Franziska, Anna Maria, and Anna Katharina. Many mentions give March 31 as Haydn & # 8217 ; s birthday, but official records confute this. It is rumored that his brother, Michael, was the beginning of this inaccuracy. Purportedly, Michael didn & # 8217 ; t want it said that his large brother came into this universe as an April Fool.
At age seven, immature Joseph entered the choir school at St. Steven & # 8217 ; s Cathedral in Vienna, where he was to stay for the following nine old ages. During his early old ages, he became interested in composing music, but he had no formal preparation until his late teens, when he worked for Italian instrumentalist and composer, Niccol Porpora. He avidly studied music, including the plants of C. P. E. Bach, and held several music-related occupations in Vienna during the 1750 & # 8217 ; s. His earliest composing, Missa Brevis in F, comes from this period, as does Der Krumme Teufel ( The Lame Devil ) , a burlesque opera, which Haydn composed in 1752. This opera was banned shortly after it & # 8217 ; s gap, nevertheless, because a local Lord thought that the chief character was his imitation.
Then, in 1758, Haydn got his first regular musical occupation as musical manager to Count Ferdinand Maximillian von Morzin in Lukavec, Bohemia, where he wrote his first orchestral composings. The Morzin orchestra performed Haydn & # 8217 ; s first symphonic music, which he conducted from the cembalo.
On November 26, 1760, he married Maria Anna Keller. Maria Anna, who was Joseph & # 8217 ; s senior by four old ages, was bad treated, disliked music, and was unable to clean the house or bear kids. She enjoyed doing Joseph angry, and frequently used his composings as tablemats. As a consequence, the twosome fought frequently, and the matrimony was a entire catastrophe. He retreated into his music, while she found solace by passing a great trade of clip in church.
In 1761, Count Morzin was forced to disband his orchestra due to fiscal jobs. It wasn & # 8217 ; t long, nevertheless, before Haydn was offered another occupation, this clip in Eisenstadt, Austria, as adjunct Kapellmeister for Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, who was greatly impressed by the music that Haydn performed while he was with the Morzin orchestra.
Paul Anton died in 1762 and was succeeded by his brother Nicholas, who was besides a music lover and played the baryton ( a brass air current instrument ) . Therefore, Haydn composed more than a 100 threes for baryton, viola, and bass during the following 13 old ages. Haydn besides composed several short operas and a full-length opera, named Acide.
Upon the decease of Gregor Werner in 1766, Joseph Haydn was promoted to Kapellmeister ( musical manager ) . Prior to his decease, Werner earned somewhat over half of the pay paid to his extremely talented, younger helper. The orchestra was expanded, and Haydn composed four to five symphonic musics a twelvemonth. He besides continued to compose operas.
In 1768, Haydn and the Esterhazy orchestra moved to Eszterhaza, a beautiful new castle built by Prince Nicholas. During this clip, Haydn did non keep his usual volume of symphonic music production, as he composed less than 10 between 1766 and 1770. However, Haydn experienced a renewed involvement in composing threading fours. He composed three groups of six fours between 1771 and 1772, which he published with the musical composition Nos. 9, 17, and 20.
Haydn & # 8217 ; s work underwent a passage between the old ages of 1768 and 1774. This was mostly due to a motion in Western Europe & # 8217 ; s literature known as & # 8220 ; Sturm und Drang & # 8221 ; , or & # 8220 ; Storm and Stress & # 8221 ; , where emotional subjects became progressively of import in literature. This motion had an consequence on Haydn and his music, and he was peculiarly imaginative in his hunt for new manners and signifiers. There are emotional and tragic elements in several of the symphonic musics that he wrote during this period, the most widely known of these being symphonic music No. 45, named Abschiedssinfonie ( Farewell Symphony ) . His operas do non reflect this displacement, nevertheless, because the blue and baronial audiences were non fond of the Sturm und Drang motion.
In 1776, a fire in Eisenstadt destroyed most of Haydn & # 8217 ; s manuscripts. It is non known how many plants were destroyed. Then, merely three old ages subsequently, another fire, this clip at Eszterhaza, destroyed many more of Haydn & # 8217 ; s composings.
Haydn continued to compose both symphonic musics and operas. In 1782, Haydn wrote the opera Orland Paladino, which came to be his most celebrated during his life-time. He composed another opera, Armida, in 1783, which he felt to be his greatest opera. Haydn & # 8217 ; s celebrity had spread even to Spain, as he composed seven slow plants, titled Instrumental music for The Seven Last Words of Our Jesus from the Cross, upon a petition from the priest of the cat
hedral in Cadiz.
During his life-time, Haydn became friends with a great coeval of his, viz. , Mozart. They most likely met each other in 1781, and remained friends until Mozart & # 8217 ; s decease in 1791. Haydn recognized the huge endowment of the younger ace, and gave his advice and unfavorable judgment to Mozart, who valued Haydn & # 8217 ; s sentiment higher than any other & # 8217 ; s. The two confided in each other and became really near, even giving composings to each other. Upon hearing of Mozart & # 8217 ; s decease, Haydn refused to believe it at foremost. The decease of his friend affected him so greatly that, even old ages subsequently, the mere reference of it would convey cryings to his eyes. Haydn was one time quoted as stating, & # 8220 ; Friends state me frequently that I am superb, but he [ Mozart ] stood far above me. & # 8221 ;
In 1790, Prince Nicholas Esterhazy died, and his replacement, Anton, cared nil for music, and disbanded the orchestra and choir. He did maintain Haydn on as Kapellmeister, though he required nil of him. After the decease of Prince Nicholas, Haydn moved to Vienna, where he would be free to follow his ain chases. By this clip, Haydn & # 8217 ; s celebrity had spread across the whole of Europe, and his plants were even being performed in America.
Early on in 1791, Haydn traveled to London, where he was to remain for 18 months. He knew no English and had ne’er seen the sea, but the aging composer was received most heartily. He performed for the royal household and aristocracy, and all of his concerts were immense successes. In July of 1791, Oxford University awarded Haydn an honorary doctor’s degree of music. He seemed to be on top of the universe, but calamity was shortly to strike, for it was during this stay in London that he heard of Mozart & # 8217 ; s prematurely decease.
Shortly thenceforth, Haydn composed one of his most of import plants, symphonic music No. 94 in G, which the English nicknamed & # 8216 ; The Surprise & # 8217 ; . Many respect symphonic music Nos. 93-104, jointly called & # 8216 ; The London & # 8217 ; , as the pinnacle of Haydn & # 8217 ; s symphonic accomplishments. The six & # 8216 ; Apponyi Quartets & # 8217 ; , which he wrote during this clip, are besides among his greatest plant. Haydn returned to Vienna in mid-1792, where, much to his letdown, his arrival went mostly unnoticed.
That fall, a immature instrumentalist and composer named Ludwig van Beethoven arrived in Vienna to have composing lessons from Haydn. The two work forces were really different, and a close friendly relationship such as that between Haydn and Mozart ne’er developed. Haydn instructed the immature Beethoven for about a twelvemonth, and one time said of him, & # 8220 ; Beethoven will one twenty-four hours be one of Europe & # 8217 ; s greatest composers and I am proud that I was his teacher. & # 8221 ; Likewise, Beethoven was a great supporter of Haydn & # 8217 ; s plants.
Haydn returned to London in early 1794, and once more he received the warmest of welcomes. He composed several more symphonic musics for the London concert season. His many friends and supporters asked him to remain for good in England, but this was non to be. Upon the decease of Prince Anton, Nicholas II ( grandson of Nicholas I ) , asked Haydn to return to Vienna, which he did tardily in the summer of 1795. Nicholas II wanted to reform the orchestra that his male parent had disbanded ; nevertheless, the relationship between Haydn and his new employer was non really good.
Haydn composed six multitudes for Nicholas II. In 1796, he began work on an cantata named Die Schopfung ( The Creation ) , which he finished two old ages subsequently. This piece is arguably Haydn & # 8217 ; s most of import work. Haydn besides wrote another cantata, which he called Die Jahreszeiten ( The Seasons ) . He finished this in 1801, but he felt that composing this work drained his strength. He one time said of the piece, & # 8220 ; Die Jahreszeiten did non convey me luck. I should non hold composed it. It finished me. & # 8221 ;
On March 20, 1800, Haydn & # 8217 ; s married woman died. In the last old ages of his life, Haydn received many awards from all across Europe. Having ne’er been really badly, he found his fading strength hard to accept. Haydn resigned his occupation with the Esterhazy household in 1804, a place which he held for over 40 old ages. Prior to his decease, Haydn was about wholly handicapped. In his last yearss, military personnels from Napoleon & # 8217 ; s ground forcess invaded Vienna. The deceasing Haydn suffered from the noise and blare, but he was non disturbed, as Napoleon ordered a guard to stand in forepart of his place. On May 31, 1809, Joseph Haydn entered into a coma and died. It was several yearss before the intelligence of his decease spread, and, because of the invasion, his funeral went mostly unnoticed. His remains were moved several times after his decease, and his organic structure now rests in Eisenstadt.
During his life-time, Joseph Haydn composed 107 symphonic musics, approximately 50 serenades, 84 threading fours, approximately 58 piano sonatas, and 13 multitudes. In all, his lasting musical plants include over 750 composings and over 330 vocals. ( A big figure of Haydn & # 8217 ; s plants were destroyed in the 1770 & # 8217 ; s, so these sums would be even higher had it non been for the two fires. ) He produced such an copiousness of plants during his long calling that a adult male named Anthony von Hoboken compiled a directory of the maestro & # 8217 ; s works, the rubric of which translates to Joseph Haydn & # 8211 ; Thematic-bibliographic List of his Works. This three-volume directory was so helpful in screening through the monolithic measure of music that most of Haydn & # 8217 ; s plants are now known through their Hoboken mention figure every bit good as their rubric.
Undoubtedly, Franz Joseph Haydn is one of the greatest composers of all clip. His music, widely acclaimed during his twenty-four hours, has since made him immortal. Very few can stand shoulder to shoulder with this great maestro.