This study contains information about the motive theories & A ; its direction pattern and the factors, which truly have an of import influence on the behavior of persons and squads along with their application in Nike ‘s company. It is besides helpful to do determinations sing direction manner and choice of the persons for an organisation.
Leadership is the anchor for the success of an organisation. Normally there are four types of leading manners, which are Autocratic, Persuasive, Participative and Democratic. These leading manners have different effectivity in different fortunes.
MOTIVATION THEORIES AND
Motivation is acquire the maximal end product from an person by supplying him different types installations and carry throughing assorted demands. There are three types of motive theories, which are Hierarchy Of Needs, Two-Factor motive theory and Expectancy theory. There is a profound nexus between motive theories and direction pattern, because without implementing these theories, an organisation can non acquire maximal end product from its employees.
Behaviour of an person in an organisation is really much of import, because better working environment in an organisation can non be developed every bit far as persons in that organisation do non act decently and manner to the full.
GROUPS AND GROUP
Any aggregation of people together is called Group. There are two types of groups ; formal and informal. Each group consists of a Leader and Team members. Formal groups are besides called squads. When a group of people comes together, they do act in a similar manner, such as all people in the land come to see the Match, which is common behavior of all these people.
The analysis of:
1.MOTIVATION: Theory AND
2. BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS
3. GROUP AND GROUP DYNAMICS
The analysis of Motivation theories, and behavior of an single & A ; group in an organisation and their application is really much necessary to take an organisation, because cognition of these countries helps to acquire the maximal end product from the employees and to run and organisation efficaciously.
PURPOSE, SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The intent of this study is to analyse the Motivation theories, leading manners, and behavior of persons and groups along with their application in the Nike ‘s company. Tried best to acquire the maximal information about these issues, but due to national boundary restrictions and awful fortunes of the state, it is non really much elaborate study.
Beginnings AND METHODS
In fixing this study, intimations took from Syllabus book of Marketing and Organization & A ; Behaviour, although Internet besides paid an of import function in its readying. The sites visited and magazines for mentions are besides mentioned in the Endnotes.
This study evaluates the Motivation theories and leading manner, besides the behaviours of persons and groups during the work clip in Nike company. General information about these countries is besides covered.
Normally there is no large difference in the leader and director. Manager performs seven maps, which are be aftering, forming, staffing, directing, organizing, coverage and budgeting.
Whereas the some particular maps make leader different from director, which are:
FIG.1: Particular Leadership Functions
Normally there are four types of leading manners, which are:
& gt ; Autocratic ( Tells )
& gt ; Persuasive ( Sells )
& gt ; Participative ( Consults )
& gt ; Democratic ( Joins )
In this type of leadings leader dominates remainder of the squad members, by utilizing his authorization, to achieve a peculiar end. It is non really much effectual to acquire the extreme public presentation and results from the squad members. This type of leading manner faces a immense confrontation from the squad members, but in order to acquire the things done, leader keeps a force per unit area over his squad members.
In some instances Autocratic leading is really much effectual, particularly where pressing determinations are required. For illustration in a battleground, soldiers need to take a speedy determinations, there they do n’t acquire clip for audience, so at that place Autocratic leading is required and on this point it works really expeditiously.
In this type of leading all the determinations are taken by leader, but in order to carry the squad members, for their motive & A ; engagement in the undertaking and to do them experience that they are besides involved in decision-making, leader describes his determination to his employees or subsidiaries. It makes the leader small lenient and the squad members non really much loyal to all determinations.
Up to some widen this type of leading is besides really effectual. Such as presents in our state Pakistan, Persuasive leading is working ; all the political determinations are taken by Gen. Musharaf, but in order to carry the citizens and other politicians, he involves Prime Minister and other few politicians.
This leading manner includes taking reappraisals and suggestions from all the squad members sing the decision-making, but still leader holds the authorization to take the concluding determination. This type of decision-making takes a long clip, but as many people think over the same facet, so determination is more accurate. This makes subsidiaries motivated and involved in that undertaking.
This leading manner is really much effectual, it makes squad members involved and motivated along with the concluding determination taking right merely to the leader. Such as in EDWARDES COLLEGE, before doing a new regulation or taking any determination, Principal consults to the staff, but still he got the authorization to implement or reject that regulation or determination.
In democratic leading whole squad together takes the determination ; it means that the leader entirely does non take the determination, but harmonizing to the willingness, suggestions and reappraisals of the squad. Team members can choose undertakings for themselves. It makes them really much involved and motivated, because they work harmonizing to their wish. Decisions become more accurate but on other manus, leader loses the authorization of determination devising lonely.
In few instances this leading is really effectual, such as in our HND category, group assignments are given, in each group one leader is selected to detect all the members, but he has no authorization to take determinations, because in each group everybody selects the undertaking himself, which is convenient to him. There is no irresistible impulse of making any specific undertaking.
“ Motivation is the procedure by which the behavior of an person is influenced by others, through their power to offer or keep back satisfaction of the person ‘s demand and ends ” .
( Organizations and Behaviour )
HND Text Book
Normally there are three types of motive theories. These theories work significantly harmonizing to the fortunes. These theories are:
1. The hierarchy of demands
2. Two-factor theory
3. Anticipation theories
1. THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Abraham Maslow proposed the hierarchy of demands, which describes the motive priorities that an ordinary employee supports:
FIG.2: Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Harmonizing to this theory an employee or group member will be motivated if the above given demands are fulfilled.
& gt ; Physiological needs represent the demands for nutrient and air etc
& gt ; Safety needs represent demands for security from danger & A ; menaces etc
& gt ; Social needs represent demands for relationship and belongingness etc
& gt ; Esteem needs represent demands for place, acknowledgment and regard from other etc
& gt ; Self realization needs represent demands for accomplishment of self fulfilment etc
In order to carry through this theory demand, Nike has established The SHAPE review Team. It is working since 1997 and its basic intent is to mensurate the overall public presentation of the company towards its employees, including environment, safety and wellness demands. For this purpose Nike mills are safe, environmental friendly. The followers are some topographic points where Nike appoints its employees:
Beginning: www.nike.com FIG.3: Nike ‘s Safe and Environment friendly Buildings
For farther fulfilment of this theory in 2003, Nike has founded its Global Women ‘s Leadership Council ( GWLC ) , the intent of this Council is to advance the professional development of adult females, within the company.
2. TWO-FACTOR Theory
Fedrick Herzberg, who was an American psychologist, interviewed 203 Pittsburgh employees in 1950s. He asked them that what thing motivated them and what demotivated. After this interview he came to a decision that there are two basic demands of persons:
& gt ; Need of the ‘hygiene factors ‘ which includes, company conditions, rewards, interpersonal dealingss, occupation safety and direction etc, if these are harmonizing to employee demands, he will be motivated and if non, it means dissatisfaction of the employees.
& gt ; Motivator factors are more concern about persons higher demands such as self-actualization and personal development. These factors motivate persons, which leads them towards more public presentation and attempts sing their work and occupation fulfilment. These factors include, duty, publicity and accomplishments etc.
The fulfilment of this theory at Nike is done by supplying assorted installations to its employees. For illustration Nike ‘s rewards to its employees are more than remainder of its rivals ; hence people love to work here. About Ethical values Nike believes:
Our codification of moralss is called Inside the Lines ; it defines the criterions of behavior we expect of our employees. Every twelvemonth, all employees are required to verify that they have read and understand Inside the Lines.
( Jill Ker Conway )
The relation among employees and disposal is really good and each employee submits its one-year confidential study sing the disposal and other employees, which is given due importance.
3. EXPECTANCY THEORIES
It consists of two theories, which are Vroom ‘s and Handy ‘s theories.
a ) VROOM ‘S Theory
Victor Vroom was another American psychologist ; in 1964 he developed the expression, supported by anticipation theory for the measuring of human motive grade. He recommended that the strength or motive grade of an person, is the merchandise of two factors:
F = V x E
FIG.4: Vroom ‘s expression for Human Motivation Measurement
& gt ; V stands for the strength of an person ‘s penchant for certain result. V can be zero, negative or positive whole number.
& gt ; E stands for an person ‘s outlook, which will be the end point of that result from certain behavior. As it is merely an imaginativeness of an person ‘s outlook, so it can be any figure from 0 ( no opportunity ) to
1 ( certainty )
B ) HANDY ‘S MOTIVATION
Charles Handy introduced a theoretical account, which describes the manner that an single trades with ain determination for the fulfilment or rejection of that determination. This theoretical account is different from the anticipation theoretical account.
Handy recommends that there is a motive concretion, which can be calculated or insensible. It evaluates following:
& gt ; An person ‘s ain demand
& gt ; Preferred consequences or results
& gt ; E factors, which include, energy, excitement, enthusiasm, emotion and outgo etc
At Nike this theory is fulfilled by supplying its employees their preferable occupations, which makes them motivated and they start seting their more attempts on their occupations. For illustration if a distributer gets some new design thought and ( s ) he portions it with the design shapers, his or her suggestion is appreciated, which makes them experiencing an importance in the company.
RELATION BETWEEN MOTIVATION THEORIES AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
There is a profound relation between the direction theories and direction patterns, because without the application of these theories in an organisation, the direction of that organisation can non work efficaciously and hand in glove with the workers of that organisation.
At Nike, in order to advance the employees, Nike has made such a regulation that the ‘Compensation Committee ‘ is responsible for supervising the public presentation rating of even the Chief executive officer. It means that at Nike, in order to do the employees satisfied from its direction, direction trades every bit to its full forces. Global Alliance was launched in 1999, it interviewed workers more than 16,000 and it launched a figure of development undertakings towards doing direction more effectual and efficient towards forces.
FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
Chiefly there are seven factors, which influence the behavior of an person at work. The relation between these six factors including 7th ‘ability ‘ , is given by following:
FIG.5: Mars Model of Individual Behaviour
Valuess are the perceptual experiences or expected behavior that an single supports to accomplish the consequence. At Nike, employees believe that satisfaction of the client and the good interpersonal relation between forces can take Nike towards taking Sportswear Company and that makes them really much successful.
It is the overall lineation of features of an person ‘s consistent internal provinces that explains the behavior of that person. Nike appoints people with impressive personality and originative outlook, because without invention Nike is nil. So personality has an of import function at Nike.
Percept is the point of position of an person, which he keeps towards its surrounding environment. Nike prefers unshockable people, because it deals with about people from all states, races and faiths, and a shockable individual can non work harmonizing to the equalising policies of Nike.
Emotions are the interior feelings, sentiments or passion of an single towards any work. Most of the Nike ‘s forces are besides athletes. This is, because it is natural thing that people like that which they can make practically. So hence athlete people will be more concerned or passionate about those things, which facilitate jocks. So hence Nike forces try to bring forth best possible thing passionately, for its jock clients.
Attitude consists of the manners in which an single Acts of the Apostless or reacts to the different people and state of affairss or fortunes. Nike employees possess a really much positive attitude towards their co-workers, disposal and their organisational civilization. It means there is a regard for seniors and support for juniors etc along with about no interpersonal struggles.
Stress is a province of experiencing tenseness or force per unit area, due to any rough fortunes, overburden of work and insecurity of something. Stress influences a batch efficiency and behavior of an person. So in order to avoid this, Nike encourages its employees to lend some clip for refreshment. For this, Nike has constructed many Parkss for its employee ‘s community and no employee is overburdened due to work, in order to avoid the emphasis.
Ability stands for capablenesss or accomplishments that and single possesses. Nike appoints persons with multi-skills and originative outlook, because Nike ‘s whole concern depends upon invention, so merely people with excess qualities can do it possible.
An person ‘s ain behavior in an organisational function is really much of import, because organisational function is the function, which an single gets in relation to his surrounding. For illustration same individual would be son at place, foreman in office participant in a land.
As Nike is an internationally recognized, good reputed and no.1 athletic wear fabricating company in the universe, so an person ‘s ain behavior in Nike means a batch.
We consider the illustration of Nike ‘s gross revenues Manager Mr. Alexander Mathew, in order to understand an person ‘s behavior in relation to Nike ‘s organisational function.
Mr. Alexander is working here from last 8 old ages. His occupation is to pull off the publicity and gross revenues of the Nike merchandises. He has a large Number of subsidiaries, which makes him senior to them. On the other manus he is junior to CEO and other Directors. His organisational function is to steer the subsidiaries sing the merchandising and publicity of the merchandises.
To carry through the societal functions, he gives regard and importance to his juniors and seniors both. This makes him shut to them. His communicating manner is really effectual ; he delivers the orders in such a polite manner that every employee obeys his order. He works with cooperation with all employees. He has such a occupation, where he has to oversee a figure of employees and in order to maintain them together he does non allow the struggles to come among their relation. He has a figure of interpersonal accomplishments such as the fluid message bringing, amazing personality the really much of import and effectual managing manner, through which he is pull offing for last eight old ages.
A group can be defined as:
A group is any aggregation of people who perceive themselves to be a group
( Organizations and Behaviour )
HND Text Book
FIG.6: A exposure of a Group making Business Meeting
There are two types of groups, which are:
& gt ; FORMAL: Groups are those, which are formed intentionally to accomplish any specific objects. These groups are besides called squads. It consists of squad members and one Leader from the same squad, such as platoon of the soldiers etc. These groups are self made or made by organisation.
& gt ; INFORMAL: Groups are those, which are slackly structured. It means there is no pre-planning for their development. For illustration a group of friends traveling to a trip. These have no specific aim and leader ; leader can be different at different state of affairss, depending upon fortunes.
When a big figure of people come together, they form group or big group. At this state of affairs they all behave in a similar manner, which is different from the single behavior. For illustration when a big figure of people come to the land, either they march or protest for something, which is their corporate or group behavior. There are some particular behaviours of groups:
& gt ; CROWD: When their would be panic among the people
& gt ; SPECTATORS: When group of people come together to take part in any event, such as Cricket Match and Movie in Cinema.
& gt ; PUBLIC: Exclusion to the regulation that group must shack in same physical topographic point. Peoples watching same channel on telecasting may respond in the same manner, as they are busying the same type of topographic point – in forepart of Television – although they may physically be making this all over the universe
The factors, which make a squad an effectual and uneffective squad, are given below:
FACTORS TO EFFECTIVE
Normally there are a big figure of factors, which lead a tem to effectual squad, but some of them are given below:
& gt ; Team object or aim must be clear to all squad members.
& gt ; All the squad members must be committed and sincere sing their occupation.
& gt ; Individual involvement should non get the better of the group aim.
& gt ; There must be ‘Democratic ‘ leading manner in the group.
& gt ; Each member of the group should be given due regard.
& gt ; Members must be cleared about their occupation.
& gt ; There must be no struggles among the group members and there should be trust and unfastened treatment among the members.
& gt ; Members should obey the leader.
& gt ; No member should be overburdened.
& gt ; Leader ‘s behavior should be equilibrating towards all squad members.
& gt ; Each member should carry through ain occupation within the specified clip.
As there are a big figure of factors, which make teamwork effectual, likewise there are menaces, which influence the public presentation of squad. Some of them are given below:
& gt ; When there would be ‘Autocratic ‘ leading manner.
& gt ; Each member tries to accomplish ain involvement.
& gt ; A large figure of struggles among the members.
& gt ; Everyone in the group agrees to a determination thought that everyone else supports the determination, but in fact no 1 supports the determination.
& gt ; Leader merely supports to the people, which are more close to him or her.
& gt ; There is no estimated result.
& gt ; No coordination among the squad members.
& gt ; No trust and assisting spirit among the squad members.
Mentions for the readying of this study are taken from the undermentioned beginnings:
& gt ; www.nike.com
& gt ; www.see.ed.ac.uk
& gt ; www.learnthings.co.uk
& gt ; www.busi.mun.ca
& gt ; www.niketown.nike.com