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Sudden exposure to any type of emphasis ab initio produces the sympathetic dismay reaction. The dismay reaction consists of a generalised and exuberant sympathetic nervous discharge, every bit good as, an addition in adrenal medullary secernment. If the nerve-racking stimulation persists, the ephemeral dismay reaction is followed by a complex neuro-endocrine response which may last hours, yearss or even hebdomads. Such a sustained neuro-endocrine response is typically

seen in patients who undergo major abdominal surgery or in patients with multiple breaks or extended Burnss. In unsophisticated surgery, the neuro-endocrine response lasts merely two to four yearss. However, in instances with multiple breaks, extended Burnss or post-surgical complications, the response may go on for yearss or hebdomads.

The alterations mentioned above seem to hold evolved to help endurance in more crude environment. Salt and H2O keeping, along with mobilisation of glucose, fatty acids and aminic acids would be good to and injured animate being with no entree to nutrient and H2O. Hence, any possible advantage of emphasis response in a surgical patient under intervention in modern scenes would non be obvious. On the other manus, exaggerated stress response seems to account for the major morbidity in the postoperative period. Nowadays, attempts are being made to rarefy the emphasis response to trauma and surgery, since it seems impossible or even unwanted to get rid of it wholly.


Fig.1.1. The cardinal emphasis response.

The probes into metabolic effects of surgical emphasis have been carried out largely in surgical operations of changing badness, instead than in trauma patients, since the baseline preoperative parametric quantities are available to measure the perioperative and postoperative changes in metabolic activity. Following a surgical operation ( or an extended injury ) , two distinguishable stages of tissue metamorphosis can be distinguished:

( 1 ) Catabolic stage lasts 2-4 yearss after major surgery, but longer in instances with multiple breaks or extended Burnss. This is the phase of emphasis. During this stage, there is increased O ingestion, terrible protein katabolism taking to loss of thin organic structure mass and negative N balance, loss of organic structure weight, unstable keeping and increased susceptibleness to infections.

( 2 ) Anabolic stage follows the katabolic stage. It lasts 4-5 yearss in unsophisticated surgical operation but longer in patients with drawn-out katabolic stage. This stage consists of a slow accretion of proteins and fat. It is a slow procedure. Proteins lost in a few yearss of katabolic stage may be restored over a period of several hebdomads. Fat shops are replenished over several months.

The Catabolic Phase

This stage is of great involvement since its strength and continuance determine the continuance of recuperation ( the anabolic stage ) . Over the last few decennaries, attempts have been made to rarefy or if possible to extinguish the katabolic stage. Some processs such as regional anaesthesia and laparoscopic surgery have been shown to diminish the continuance and strength of the katabolic stage. However, no step is yet available to wholly extinguish this stage. It may non be even prudent to make so. The neuro-endocrine response is a cosmopolitan a response to all types of emphasis. Such a response can be eliminated in experimental animate beings by bilateral suprarenalectomy. In such animate beings, any type of emphasis such as anaesthesia, surgery or bleeding is constantly fatal.

The causes of katabolic stage in surgical emphasis include fright, hurting, anesthesia, surgical injury ( tissue devastation and loss of blood and fluids from the operated site ) and post-surgical complications like bleeding, hypoxia, daze and infections.


Gun triggers for Metabolic Response to Surgical Stress







Transient famishment

Tissue injury: Most of import factor: Acts through

Neural tracts

Release of cytokines

Blood loss

Fluid loss

Postoperative complications:

Blood loss

Fluid loss


Mechanism of Neuro-endocrine Response.

The neuro-endocrine in surgical emphasis is mediated chiefly through the hypothalamus ensuing in ( I ) activation of sympatho-adrenal system, and ( two ) alteration in pituitary secretory organ secernment ensuing in increased secernment of its mark secretory organs. The overall metabolic consequence of hormonal alterations is increased katabolism, which mobilizes substrates to supply a beginning of energy. In add-on, hypovolaemia, if present, sets up its ain physiological reaction responses through arterial baroreceptors and volume receptors in order to keep cardiovascular homeostasis.

Sympatho-adrenal Response: The Alarm Chemical reaction

Fig.1.2. The dismay reaction.

This is the immediate response to all types of emphasis. That is why it was called the dismay reaction by Selye. It is a constituent of what he called General Adaptation syndrome. The generalised addition in sympathetic nervous discharge is accompanied by increased adrenal medullary secernment ( adrenal myelin is supplied by preganglionic sympathetic fibers ) . The release of adrenal medullary catecholamines occurs within seconds or proceedingss. The phase can be easy recognized by the cardio-vascular effects such as tachycardia and high blood pressure.

In some types of emphasis, such as hypoglycaemia, terrible exercising, bleeding, and exposure to severe cold emphasis, the sympatho-adrenal response is frequently sufficient to supply appropriate metabolic and cardiovascular responses to keep homeostasis till the stressogenic stimulation disappears. In other instances, where the emphasis persists and sympatho-adrenal response is unequal for the grade of emphasis, a complex neuro-endocrine response supervenes. The most characteristic characteristic of this stage is hypothalamus-mediated addition in ACTH and cortisol secernments. However, endocrinal response is widespread in involves a big figure of endocrines ( Fig. 1.3 ) . The katabolic stage corresponds to the care stage of GAS by Salye. It consequences from farther attempts of the organic structure to keep homeostasis in the face of relentless emphasis. If terrible and relentless, emphasis may take to damaging metabolic and immunological effects ; that may be fatal ( the exhaustion stage of GAS ) .

Fig.1.3. The neuro-endocrine response to surgical emphasis.

1. Adreno-corticotropic Hormone ( ACTH ) and Cortisol

The hypothalamic-mediated increased secernment of ACTH from the anterior pituitary leads to motivate addition in plasma hydrocortisone secernment. Plasma degrees of both the endocrine are found to increase within proceedingss of the start of surgery. In the preoperative, perioperative and postoperative periods, a figure of triggers may move independently or in combination to increase the secernment of ACTH and hydrocortisone. The metabolic effects of high plasma concentrations of hydrocortisone are listed below:

1. Hyperglycemia by ( I ) bring oning synthesis of hepatic enzymes involved in

neoglucogenesis, and

( two ) Decreasing peripheral ( skeletal musculus ) glucose


2. Increased plasma free fatso acids ( FFA ) degrees by triping the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase in the adipose tissue.

3. Enhanced protein katabolism, peculiarly in the skeletal musculus, taking to negative nitrogen balance.

4. Immunosuppression by diminishing the figure of go arounding T- and B-lymphocytes.

5. Salt and H2O keeping in the kidneys.

6. Anti-inflammatory action. In high concentrations, hydrocortisone interferes with the synthesis of go-betweens of inflammatory response, peculiarly prostaglandins. Therefore, assorted facets of inflammatory response such as accretion of neutrophils and macrophages are inhibited.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Whereas the function of enhanced cortisol secernment during emphasis is well-known, the increased secernment of ACTH seems to hold a function in add-on to that of increasing the adrenal cortical secernment. During exposure to emphasize, the plasma ACTH degrees are far above those required for maximum hydrocortisone secernment by the adrenal cerebral mantle. In this connexion, it is pertinent to advert that ACTH is derived from the larger protein molecule, proopiomelanocortin ( POMC ) , which undergoes post-translational splitting to give ACTH, I?-endorphin and certain other polypeptide fragments. I?-endorphin is a powerful endogenous opioid anodyne.

2. Adrenal Medullary Catecholamines

Adrenal medullary adrenaline and norepinephrine drama a cardinal function in the metabolic response to anesthesia and surgery. Their secernment begins to increase during initiation of anaesthetic agent and continues 2-3 yearss postoperatively. Medullary catecholamines make noteworthy part to hypermetabolic province observed during the katabolic stage of surgical emphasis.

The metabolic actions of catecholamines, peculiarly adrenaline are listed below:

Hyperglycemia. Both the catecholamines produce hyperglycaemia through a figure of mechanisms:

Glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal musculus.

Inhibition of insulin secernment.

Increased glucagon secernment.

Increased plasma FFA degrees.

Calorigenic action. Catecholamines increase metabolic rate of the organic structure by increasing chemical thermogenesis.

Activation of rennin-angiotensin system.

The cardiovascular effects of catecholamines aid in the care of homeostasis in the face of blood and other organic structure unstable losingss during surgery.

3. Insulin and Glucagon

These endocrines are of import regulators of blood glucose degree. Insulin lowers blood glucose degree, whereas glucagon secernment consequences in hyperglycaemia. Their secernment from the islets of Langerhans normally varies in a mutual mode. Sympathetic discharge and go arounding catecholamines suppress insulin release and promote glucagon secernment.


This endocrine has strong anabolic actions on saccharide, protein and fat metamorphosis. Liver, skeletal musculus and adipose tissue are the main mark variety meats for insulin. The metabolic effects of insulin are listed below.

A. Liver:

Increased glycolysis.

Increased animal starch synthesis.

Increased protein synthesis.

Increased fatty acerb synthesis.

Decreased gluconeogenesis.

Decreased glucose end product

Decreased ketogenesis.

Skeletal Muscle

Increased glucose use.

Increased animal starch synthesis

Increased amino acid consumption.

Increased protein synthesis

Increased K+ consumption.

Decreased protein katabolism.

C. Adipose Tissue

Increased glucose consumption.

Increased fatty acerb synthesis.

Increased triglyceride deposition.

Activation of lipoprotein lipase.

Inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase.

Increased K+ consumption.

Impaired insulin secernment is an of import characteristic of surgical emphasis. Sympatho-adrenal discharge additions at the start of surgical emphasis and continues good into postoperative period. Inhibition of insulin secernment can be explained by the direct effects of sympathetic nervous discharge and go arounding catecholamines on the I?-cells of the islets. During the postoperative period, a mutual relationship between a rise in plasma catecholamines degrees and a lessening in plasma insulin degrees can be demonstrated.

Stress is besides associated with a terrible, yet reversible, signifier of insulin opposition. In the perioperative period, the grade of hyperglycaemia is frequently out of proportion to the decreased plasma insulin degrees. The insulin-resistance, at least partially, consequences from increased degrees of counter-regulatory endocrines such as hydrocortisone, catecholamines and growing endocrine. However, marked insulin opposition can develop after elected surgery even without attendant lifts in the plasma degrees of counter-regulatory endocrines. The grade of insulin opposition developing after surgery is relative to the surgical injury and may prevail for 2-3 hebdomads after unsophisticated abdominal surgery The chief sites for insulin opposition seem to be extrahepatic tissues, likely skeletal musculus, where preliminary informations suggest that the suppression of glucose transporting system is involved.


Liver is main mark organ for glucagon. This endocrine promotes hepatic production of glucose by: ( I ) Breakdown of animal starch to glucose ( glycogenolysis ) and ( two ) . Synthesis of glucose from aminic acids ( neoglucogenesis ) . Plasma glucagon degrees increase transiently after major surgery, but this is non the major contributory factor in the production of hyperglycaemia during surgical emphasis.

4. Growth Hormone

Besides the well-known action of growing publicity in childhood, growing endocrine has many metabolic actions that operate even in grownups. These metabolic effects are listed below:

Stimulation of protein synthesis.

Inhibition of protein break down.

Increased lioplysis in the adipose tissue.

Decreased glucose use in the peripheral tissues.

Growth endocrine produces its growing publicity and metabolic effects by advancing the synthesis of polypeptide called insulin-like growing factor-1 ( IGF-1 ) in the liver. However, non all actions of GH can be attributed to IGF-1. IGF-1 has insulin-like activity, anti-lipolytic activity, protein synthesis and epiphyseal growing. Growth hormone actions include reduced insulin sensitiveness, lipolysis, protein synthesis and epiphyseal growing.

A GH-resistant province is observed during surgical emphasis. Stress response is characterized by an lift of growing endocrine secernment that is neither accompanied by the corresponding increase in IGF-I nor reflected in nitrogen balance ( which remains negative ) . Therefore, whereas anabolic effects of GH are suppressed, the anti-insulin and lipolytic action are permitted to happen.

A 2- to 16- fold addition in plasma growing endocrine degrees have been observed in perioperative and postoperative period. Much higher plasma degrees have been recorded in patients with immediate post-surgical complications. It has been suggested that the rapid postoperative oncoming of raised GH concentration in plasma may be used as a marker for postoperative complications.

Thyroid Hormones

Thyroid endocrines are the main regulator of metabolic rate of the organic structure. At normal plasma concentrations, thyroid endocrines have an anabolic activity. However, at high plasma concentrations, they produce protein katabolism. The thyroid secretory organ secretes largely thyroxin ( T4 ) and a little sum of liothyronine ( T 3 ) . In the tissues, T 4 is converted to T 3, a derivative many times more powerful than T 4, before it can exercise its metabolic activity. Normally, about 40 % of T 4 is converted T3 and the remainder is converted to an inert derived function called contrary T3 ( R T3 ) .

Surgical emphasis is a terrible hypermetabolic and protein katabolic province. Therefore it may be assumed that thyroid secernments are increased during surgical emphasis. Actually, plasma T4 degrees are unaffected, T3 degrees lessening and R T3 degrees addition during surgical emphasis. The increased RT3/ T3 ratio may be due to coincident addition in plasma hydrocortisone. The significance of reduced plasma T3 degrees, if any, is non clear.

Antidiuretic Hormone ( antidiuretic hormone )

Antidiuretic endocrine ( ADH ) is secreted by the posterior pituitary secretory organ. The two head stimulations increasing the secernment of the endocrine are:

increased plasma osmolality e.g. desiccation and

( two ) decreased extracellular fluid volume e.g. desiccation, bleeding. Some other factors known to increase ADH secernment include hurting, exercising, emphasis, and nicotine.

The actions of ADH are listed below:

Antidiuresis: ADH causes keeping of H2O in the collection canals of the kidneys ensuing in the production of smaller volume of concentrated piss. This action is evident even at low plasma degrees of the endocrine ( 1-10 pg/ml ) .

Blood force per unit area addition: Vasopressin ( ADH ) produces contraction of the smooth musculus of the blood vass taking to an addition in arterial blood force per unit area. This action occurs at high plasma degree of the endocrine ( 100 pg/ml )

Elevated secernment of ADH is one of the characteristic characteristics of surgical emphasis. The elevated ADH degrees persist for about a hebdomad after the operation. Anesthesia itself causes a crisp addition in plasma ADH degree, though later blood loss, perioperative and postoperative hurting, postoperative sickness and emesis are some of the factors predisposing a surgical patient to release an surplus of ADH. Increased ADH secernment after a major surgical operation may assist to counterbalance for blood and unstable loss during surgery. However, surgery is one of the of import causes for the development of syndrome of inappropriate ADH release ( SIADH ) .

In SIADH, there is continual release of ADH that is independent of plasma osmolality. The patient is unable to egest dilute piss, and ingested fluids are retained. Dilutional hyponatremia develops. The sum of ADH re-leased and the lift of urinary osmolality therefore produced is considered to be inappropriate in relation to the degree of plasma osmolality or serum Na concentration. Therefore, the trademark of SIADH is dilutional hyponatremia in the presence of urinary osmolality greater than plasma osmolality and continued urinary elimination of Na. SIADH puts the patient at hazard of H2O poisoning and terrible hyponatremia, even on disposal of moderate H2O burden.


Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid secreted by the zona glomeruloza of the adrenal cerebral mantle. Its green goodss salt and H2O keeping in the collection canals of the kidney. Due to sodium-potassium exchange in the epithelial cells of the collection canals, there is enhanced urinary K loss as good.

Regulation of Secretion

1. Renin-angiotensin mechanism is the most of import regulator of aldosterone secernment. The afferent arteriolas of the kidney contain juxta-glomerular cells. These cells contain shops of renin a proteolytic enzyme. Juxta-glomerular cells act as baroreceptors and release chymosin in response to a autumn in afferent arteriolar perfusion force per unit area. Therefore any lessening in intravascular volume due to shed blood or desiccation consequences in increased chymosin subdivision into blood. Increased sympathetic discharge due to any emphasis, including surgical emphasis besides increases rennin release. Renin converts go arounding plasma protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. An endothelial converting enzyme converts angiotensin I to an Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II acts on the zone glomerulosa cells of adrenal cerebral mantle ensuing in increased secernment of aldosterone ( Fig. 1.4 ) .

Fig.1.4. The renin angiotonin system

2. An addition in plasma K+ degree besides produces additions aldosterone secernment by a direct action on the zone glomerulosa cells.

3. ACTH is chiefly concerned with release of hydrocortisone from the zona fasciculata of adrenal cerebral mantle. Increased ACTH secernment produces a mild and transeunt addition in aldosterone secernment.

Addition in plasma aldosterone secernment starts merely when the patient is being anesthetized and continues during surgery and postoperative period. The degree bit by bit falls over a period of seven to ten yearss. Significant reverse correlativity between plasma renin activity and go arounding plasma volume can be observed. However, the increased sympatho- adrenal discharge during the dismay reaction and during perioperative period may increase aldosterone secernment even in the absence of hypovolaemia or hypotension.

9. Sexual activity endocrines

A lessening in the plasma degrees of testosterone and estrogens has been reported during the postoperative period.

10. Cytokines

Experimental and clinical surveies have brought grounds that surgical injury markedly affects the immune system, including both the particular and the non-specific immune responses.

The immune system of the organic structure may be considered as two incorporate systems that communicate with each other. Granulocytes, macrophages, and natural slayer ( NK ) and dendritic cells are components of the innate immune system, the first line of defence against antigens such as bacteriums, viruses, and some types of go arounding tumour cells. The acquired immunogical response comprises of cellular and humoral unsusceptibility mediated by the T- and B-lymphocytes. The innate and acquired immune systems are closely interlinked.

Cytokines are non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leucocytes and some non-leukocytic cells that act as intercellular go-betweens. Cytokines whose amino acerb sequence is known are called interleukins ( IL ) .Cytokines, may move on the cells bring forthing them in autocrine manner or other cells both in close propinquity ( paracrine action ) , or cells at a distance from the bring forthing cell ( endocrinal action ) .

During surgical emphasis, in contrast to other endocrines discussed before, the production of cytokines is initiated by tissue injury instead than by catecholamines or ACTH-cortisol secernment. The release of IL-6 can be peculiarly linked to the badness of hurt inflicted.

Cytokine Release in Major Surgical Trauma

( A ) There is an early hyperinflammatory response, which is characterized by ( I ) release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour mortification factor alpha ( TNF ) , interleukin ( IL ) -1, and IL-6, which consequences in acute stage response and ( two ) neutrophil activation and microvascular attachment, every bit good as ( three ) uncontrolled polymorphonuclear ( PMN ) and macrophage oxidative explosion.

Acute stage response jointly refers to a configuration of physiological alterations that are initiated instantly subsequent to pathogen infection or tissue injury. These alterations include a displacement in liver metamorphosis such that synthesis of normal bearer proteins is inhibited, whereas production of positive acute-phase proteins is initiated. Other alterations associated with acute stage activation are

( I ) Fever

( two ) Granulocytosis

( three ) Production of ‘acute stage proteins ‘ ( APPs ) in the liver such as C-reactive protein, factor I and alpha-2 macroglobulin.

( four ) Decrease in plasma concentrations of conveyance proteins: albumen, beta globulin, alpha-2 macroglobulin.

The map of most APPs has non been wholly elucidated. The APPs are regarded as holding general maps in opsonisation and caparison of microorganisms and their merchandises, in triping complement, in adhering cellular leftovers like atomic fractions, in neutralizing enzymes, scavenging free haemoglobin and groups, and in modulating the host ‘s immune response.

Measurement of acute-phase proteins, particularly C-reactive protein, is a utile marker of redness. It correlates with the erythrocyte deposit rate ( ESR ) .

( B ) Anti-inflammatory response

The monolithic and uninterrupted IL-6 release induces an acute stage response, but, more significantly, besides accounts for the up-regulation of major anti-inflammatory go-betweens, such as prostaglandin ( PG ) E2, IL-10 and transforming growing factor ( TGF ) -? . This consequences in surgical, trauma-induced, immunosuppression, as indicated by ( I ) monocyte inactivation, and

( two ) a displacement of the Th1/Th2 ratio towards a Th2-dominated cytokine form

Table. 1.1. Cytokines: types, beginnings and major actions.


1. Hypermetabolism

Increased organic structure metamorphosis is one of the characteristic characteristics of surgical emphasis. Most dramatic addition in metabolic rate is seen in burn hurts when metabolic rate additions by about 50 % . Even in unsophisticated abdominal surgery, a 10 % addition in metamorphosis is usual. The increased metamorphosis can be correlated with increased adrenal catecholamine discharge. There is no addition in the secernment of thyroid endocrines. In fact, plasma T3 degrees are lower than normal.

2. Hyperglycemia

Consequent to the complex neuro-endocrine response discussed above, hyperglycaemia is normally observed in the perioperative period. Hyperglycemia consequences from increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis coupled with development of insulin opposition in the peripheral tissues ( skeletal musculus ) . Marked insulin opposition is present after everyday surgical processs, even in the absence of sepsis or other complications, and may prevail up to 20 yearss thenceforth. The grade of addition in the blood glucose degree is normally influenced both by patient features ( such as preexistent diabetes ) every bit good as type of surgical process ( being more common during extremely nerve-racking operations such as cardiac surgery ) . The sawbones normally becomes self-satisfied to hyperglycemia since it is seen so on a regular basis, and it is non easy related to a recognizable inauspicious perioperative event.

Although plasma glucose abnormalcies in hospitalized patients have traditionally been explained by the release of go-betweens of emphasis, and therefore perioperative hyperglycaemia has non been treated sharply, chiefly because it has been considered harmless. However, a turning organic structure of grounds has shown that underlying defects in glucose metamorphosis may besides be an of import subscriber to the rise in plasma glucose degree.

The clinical significance of what most would see comparatively minor addition in perioperative glucose degrees is likely to be underestimated. Strong grounds exists to bespeak that hyperglycaemia entirely, with or without diabetes, contributes to morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Hyperglycemia might be linked to inauspicious result through direct or indirect mechanisms. Short and transeunt periods of hyperglycaemia have been shown to ensue in abnormalcies in each measure of granulocyte-phagocytic map i.e. granulocyte attachment, diapedesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bacterial violent death. This damage in immune map has been associated with an increased hazard for wound nosocomial infection. Acute hyperglycaemia besides consequences glycosuria associated with osmotic diuresis, electrolyte depletion and desiccation which farther potentiate hapless wound mending and increased the hazard of infections.

Patients with diabetes mellitus have impaired ability to release insulin as a compensatory response to insulin opposition. Hence such patients have even greater mental unsoundness in glucose metamorphosis when compared to nondiabetic patients. Patients with a average blood glucose degrees greater than 200 mg/dL within 36 hours following cardiac surgery are more likely to develop infective complications than their opposite numbers who maintain better glycemic control.

Besides the surgical patients, hyperglycaemia is extremely prevailing in the intensive attention unit. Numerous surveies have demonstrated the association between hyperglycaemia and inauspicious results, independent of preexistent diabetes. Intervention tests of insulin therapy are limited but, in general, they demonstrate that glucose take downing significantly improves results.

3. Lipolysis

The form of endocrinal secernments ( increased catecholamines, G.H. , hydrocortisone secernment and development of insulin opposition ) favour greater dislocation of stored fat in to free fatty acids ( FFA ) . Although, lipolysis is well increased, the plasma FFA degree remains within the normal scope. These observations demonstrate, in the face of decreased glucose use, there is monolithic FFA use as an energy substrate, particularly in the skeletal musculus.

4. Protein katabolism

Protein katabolism is the most of import consequence of the katabolic stage of surgical emphasis. It consequences in anaemia, hypoproteinemia, and loss of thin organic structure mass ( chiefly musculus proteins ) . An mean individual loses 400 gram of wet thin tissue every twenty-four hours of the katabolic stage. Increased protein katabolism is reflected in increased urinary losingss of N and K.

More than half a century has passed since Cuthbertson observed that bone breaks cause a big addition in urinary N elimination, thereby set uping negative N balance as a metabolic trademark of injury. Accumulative urinary N elimination, a traditional step to quantify oxidative protein losingss, has been shown to run between 40A and 80A g after unsophisticated abdominal processs. Patients enduring from multiple hurts and infected daze lose more than 200 g of N. Nitrogen losingss after terrible Burnss can transcend 300 g. The clinical importance of this katabolic form can be appreciated more readily when one remembers that 1 g of N is the equivalent of 30 g of hydrous thin tissue. The loss of thin musculus mass is of extreme clinical relevancy as the length of clip for return of normal day-to-day modus operandi after discharge from the infirmary is determined by the extent of loss musculus mass during hospitalization. Because protein represents both structural and functional organic structure constituents, eroding of thin tissue may besides take to lay waste toing effects such as delayed wound mending, compromised immune map, and diminished musculus strength ensuing in drawn-out recuperation and increased morbidity.

The chief implicit in defect appears to be an accelerated rate of proteolysis and amino acerb oxidization along with an deficient addition in protein synthesis. Endogenous amino acerb oxidization from the musculus after abdominal surgery has been shown to increase by 90 % , while whole organic structure protein synthesis additions by 10 % merely. The magnitude of this change is significant sing the fact that musculus tissue represents about 45 % of organic structure weight.

The biochemical factors originating, modulating and prolonging the katabolic response to surgery hold non been to the full identified. Much of the ascertained katabolic profile can be explained by specific hormonal changes known as the neuro-endocrine emphasis response. Surgical emphasis consequences in increased secernment of several pituitary endocrines and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, ensuing in lifts in the plasma degrees of hydrocortisone, and catecholamines. Furthermore, there is pronounced damage of tissue insulin sensitiveness.

And extra factor advancing the loss of thin organic structure mass is the drawn-out bed remainder necessitated for recovery from a major surgical operation. In the absence of the stimulation afforded by physical activity, metabolic homeostasis is compromised, and a rapid impairment in functional capacity can happen. In one recent survey, it was demonstrated that 28-day bed remainder in otherwise healthy immature voluntaries resulted in about 0.5 kg loss of thin leg mass. Amino acid dynamicss revealed a important lessening in protein synthesis. Compared with bed remainder entirely, exogenic disposal of hydrocortisones coupled with drawn-out inaction well increased loss of musculus protein due to a decrease in musculus protein synthesis every bit good as increased protein katabolism.

5. Salt and Water Retention

In 1959, Francis Moore coined the footings ‘sodium keeping stage ‘ to depict the alterations which accompany the katabolic stage of hurt and ‘the Na diuresis stage ‘ to depict the return of the normal ability to egest Na chloride and H2O, signaling the recovery and recuperation. These observations emphasize how the pathophysiology of the response to hurt increases the exposure of surgical patients to mistakes in fluid and electrolyte disposal, and the importance of ordering fluids with a clear apprehension of this response. A UK survey in 1997 showed that postoperative patients were often in positive fluid balance of 7 liters or more, with a positive Na burden of 700 mmol in the first few postoperative yearss.

Although turning away of perioperative hypovolemia remains an indispensable demand and preoperative intravascular optimisation improves outcome, inordinate fluid extract taking to sodium, chloride and H2O overload is now going recognized as a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality.

A figure of hormonal alterations, an indispensable constituent of the katabolic stage, lead to salt and H2O keeping. Hypotension and hypovolaemia are powerful stimulations for increased secernment of antidiuretic endocrine, renin and angiotonin II, but their plasma concentrations have been found to increase even in absence of any such stimulation during surgery. In fact, plasma renin activity increases merely when the patient is being anesthetesized and continues during surgery and seven to ten yearss postoperatively. Due to surgical uses maximal plasma renin activity up to twenty creases of the normal value have been recorded.

ADH degrees are universally elevated post-operatively when compared with pre-operative values. However, inappropriate ADH secernment ( SIADH ) , a upset characterized by ADH release in malice of the repressive influence of hypoosmolality ( hyponatremia ) is a serious complication. Surgical emphasis is one of the causes SIADH. The diagnosing of SIADH is suggested upon presentation with typical symptoms of weight addition, failing, lassitude and mental confusion which finally advancement to paroxysms.

Post -operative hyponatraemia is a common clinical job happening in 1 % of patients, with diagnostic hyponatraemia ( SIADH ) happening in 20 % of these patients. SIADH is more often seen in patients undergoing major surgeries such as on the bosom or spinal column. However, on occasion it may happen during comparatively minor abdominal surgeries. Post -operative patients develop hyponatraemia due to a combination of non-osmotic stimulations for ADH release, such as subclinical volume depletion, hurting, sickness, emphasis, edema-forming conditions and disposal of hypotonic fluids.

Signs and symptoms of SIADH are chiefly related to the disfunction of the cardinal nervous system and correlative with badness and celerity of development of hyponatremia. Anorexia, sickness, and unease are the earliest findings, followed by concern, crossness, confusion, musculus spasms, failing, obtundation, ictuss, and coma. These occur as osmotic fluid displacements result in intellectual hydrops and increased intracranial force per unit area. Whereas most patients with serum Na concentration above 125 mEq/L are symptomless, those with lower levelsA typically have symptoms, particularly in the scene of a rapid decrease.A WhenA Na concentration beads below 105 mEq/L, dangerous complicationsA are likely toA occur.

6. Immunosuppression

There are widespread and important surgery-induced changes in an array of immune maps, including NK cell activity, lymph cell cell Numberss and proliferation, and cytokine secernment by immune cells. NK cell activity is suppressed within hours of surgery and stopping points for yearss. Several surveies have shown by direct comparing that a more invasive surgery is associated with a greater magnitude of NK suppression. Persons undergoing major surgery for malignant neoplastic disease are at greatest hazard for a profound and durable decrease in NK cell activity.

Because macrophages and NK cells are among the first response immune cells, their communications with other immune cells via cytokine production is extremely of import in measuring the immune effects of surgery, with peculiar deductions for post-surgical infection. In add-on to grounds of a primary suppressive factor from surgery on NK cells, local factors released from damaged tissue, such as prostaglandins, are well-known subscribers to redness and hence, inflammatory cytokine production. Tumor mortification factor, IL-1, and IL-6 are cardinal inflammatory cytokines that have been associated with surgery-induced decreases in immune maps.

Suppression of cellular unsusceptibility is another of import host responses to surgical emphasis. Post-surgical immunosuppression may predispose the patient to infected complications. Furthermore, surgical immunosuppression may let the metastatic spread of malignant cells. Immune effecter cells are closely involved in the patient ‘s response to malignant neoplastic disease. The increased immunosuppression after unfastened surgery could potentially suppress immune effecter cell tumour surveillance every bit good as inhibit scavenging of any residuary or micrometastatic disease or of tumour cells shed at the clip of the operation.

Can and should post-surgical katabolic response be abolished?

As discussed in item above, surgical hurt is followed by profound alterations in endocrinal metabolic map and assorted host defence mechanisms taking to katabolism and immunosuppression etc. These physiologic alterations are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative morbidity. Therefore, attempts are being made to germinate techniques to rarefy, the katabolic stage.

Epidural analgesia

Effective afferent nervous encirclement with uninterrupted extradural local

anaesthetic techniques inhibits a major portion of the hormone

metabolic response, taking to improved protein economic system but

without damaging effects on inflammatory or immunologic

responses. Epidural analgesia, at present, is the most effectual step to rarefy the surgical emphasis responses ( Ch. )

Opioids and NSAIDS

In contrast, pain intervention with other modes such as

nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs = ( NSAIDs ) and opioids has

merely a little inhibitory consequence on hormone metabolic responses.

Minimally invasive surgery

This is another good established step which attenuates the hormone metabolic responses and reduces the inflammatory response and immune suppression

Anabolic therapy

An aggressive nutritionary attack can prolong the hypermetabolic response to some extent. But, frequently, it is deficient by itself, doing anabolic agents that abrogate katabolism of structural protein a necessary anchor of effectual therapy. It has been suggested that anabolic therapy can be safely integrated into the direction of terrible hurt and critical unwellness and should ensue in betterment in result.


The possible to modulate the activity of the immune system by intercessions with specific foods is termed immunonutrition. Altered supply of foods is used to modify inflammatory or immune responses. Administration of “ Immune food cocktails ” ( Table 1.2 ) have been advocated specially to better the endurance of infected patients during the intensive attention period.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

Table 1.2 Immune Nutrient Cocktail

( I ) Amino acids



( two ) I©-3 fatty acids

( three ) Nucleic Acids

( four ) Anabolic endocrines


Insulin-like growing factor-1 ( IGF-1 )


Anabolic steroids

Human growing endocrine

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