& # 8217 ; s In Education Essay, Research Paper
Integrating Film and Television into Social Studies Instruction
By their ain histories and those of their critics, the current coevals of
pupils is a video coevals. They learned to read with Large Bird on & # 8220 ; Sesame
Street & # 8221 ; and their position of the universe has been mostly formed and shaped through ocular civilization. This acquaintance can do movie and picture a powerful pedagogical tool. Ocular media besides address different acquisition modes, doing stuff more accessible to ocular and aural scholars. Add to this the rich array of diverse pictures and docudramas available and it & # 8217 ; s easy to see why these formats represent the 2nd most popular beginning used in societal surveies categories.
However, the really qualities that brand movie and picture so popular present jobs every bit good. For pupils raised on a steady diet of media ingestion, movie and documental footage used in the schoolroom frequently becomes & # 8220 ; edutainment. & # 8221 ; This does more than merely falsify historical and societal issues. It reinforces the inactive screening and unquestioning credence of received stuff that accompanies turning up in a picture environment.
That passiveness and deficiency of critical consciousness is anathema to a democracy. An indispensable facet of societal surveies instruction is the instruction of information and accomplishments needed by people who are to take part actively as citizens in a democratic society. Thirty old ages ago this meant learning pupils to read the newspaper critically, to place prejudice at that place, and to separate between factual coverage and editorializing. Critical screening accomplishments must be added to this attempt. One solution to the omnipotence of ocular civilization is to develop a
critical consciousness of that civilization.
The last 10 old ages have witnessed many attempts uniting media literacy and teaching method. For societal surveies instructors, an first-class starting point is John E. O & # 8217 ; Connor & # 8217 ; s IMAGE AS ARTIFACT: THE HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF FILM AND TELEVISION. O & # 8217 ; Connor & # 8217 ; s work discusses pedagogical attacks to movie and picture that have their ancestors in the doctrine of historical and societal surveies inquiry. He defines three basic types of inquiries that historians ask of any papers and applies these to movie and picture. This is followed by an explication of four models for historical enquiry refering ocular stuff. These attacks and techniques are neither consecutive nor separate ; instead they are complementary, designed to be combined and applied throughout the acquisition procedure.
THREE TYPES OF QUESTIONS
( 1 ) Questions about Content. How is the information determined by the ocular and aural mechanics of the movie? This requires a basic cognition of the linguistic communication of movie and narrative construction. Teachers should be familiar with redacting techniques, camera angles, the utilizations of sound, and other facets of the presentation. Similarly, they need some cognition of movie construction. Any figure of introductory texts on movie production can supply this. A good illustration is THE ART OF WATCHING FILMS ( 1996 ) by Joseph M. Boggs.
( 2 ) Questions about Production. Beyond the cultural and societal facets of the movie, what influences were at work in determining the papers? How might the background ( personal, political, professional ) of the manufacturer, manager, author, histrions have influenced the presentation? Interviews, trade magazines, and the national imperativeness provide good coverage for recent productions. Press kits and promotional stuffs are besides an excellent, albeit biased, primary beginning. For older movies, memoirs and lifes frequently provide penetration.
( 3 ) Questions about Reception. How was the papers received at the clip of its production? What factors influenced this response? Has the critical response changed over the old ages? Did this production influence other plants? societal motions? tendencies? This attack lends itself good to student undertakings researching historical reappraisals and other related narratives. Diaries and magazines covering mass media history are a peculiarly rich beginning.
FOUR FRAMEWORKS FOR HISTORICAL INQUIRY
( 1 ) The Traveling Image as Representation of History. This attack is frequently utile merely for introducing pupils with a sense of clip, topographic point, and material civilization. The wise usage of cartridge holders from one or several movies can present pupils to such issues as life conditions, household dealingss, societal imposts, and commercialism. For case, a recent exhibit at the National Institute of Medicine showed scenes from Kenneth Branagh & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Frankenstein & # 8221 ; to exemplify early medical patterns. Recent surveies reveal that many instructors use video cartridge holders in this or similar manners.
( 2 ) The Traveling Image as Evidence for Social and Cult
ural History. This attack represents a practical gold mine for societal surveies and history instructors. Popular civilization frequently reflects the societal and cultural environment of its times more accurately than it reveals its topic. Laurence Oliver’s “Henry V” ( 1945 ) ,
made in England during the dark yearss of World War II, was a rousing encomium to nationalism. Later versions stressed the horrors of war. Films affecting national and folk heroes, in peculiar, frequently act as ritual myths
lighting modern-day struggles as they reenact a familiar narrative. The authoritative American struggle between Wyatt Earp, the Clanton pack, and Doc Holliday has been told as a mythic Western, & # 8220 ; My Darling Clementine & # 8221 ; ( 1946 ) , a psychological play, & # 8220 ; Gunfight at the O.K. Corral & # 8221 ; ( 1957 ) , and a revisionist squelch, & # 8220 ; Doc & # 8221 ; ( 1971 ) . While movie can function as an prosecuting debut to a topic, pupils should be cognizant of the changeless shading and prejudices, why these occur, and what they accomplish. Film makers involved in recent lifes of George Wallace and Larry Flynt admitted to earnestly sanitising their topics to suit narrative formats and audience outlooks.
( 3 ) Actuality Footage as Evidence for Historical Fact. A filmed record appears incontestable. Indeed, our really linguistic communication supports this impression with phrases such as & # 8220 ; seeing is believing & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; with your ain two eyes. & # 8221 ; This suggests that footage of a real-life event possess an unstained veracity. Documentary
footage, nevertheless, is ne’er entirely nonsubjective. An scrutiny of cinematography and redaction, fortunes environing production and distribution, and the manufacturer & # 8217 ; s purposes are indispensable for analyzing such stuff. Students should be cognizant that much early newsreel footage was faked. Indeed, this questionable
pattern continues today. Another indispensable inquiry to inquire: what was left out of the docudrama?
( 4 ) The History of the Moving Image as Industry and Art Form. The history and development of modern civilization is inextricably intertwined with the growing of industry. In the 20th century the growing of the communicating and amusement industries has been both primogenitor and reflector of societal alteration. Individual movies can be treated as emblematic of alterations within that industry. Broader subjects could include: alterations in distribution, funding, and ownership. For illustration, how is the current state of affairs among independent film makers similar or different than the early yearss of film devising?
A wealth of stuff is available at libraries and picture shops. Fortunately there is a corresponding roar in books supplying lists, classs, and notes on this stuff. Here are a few that should turn out utile:
Picture THIS! : A GUIDE TO OVER 300 ENVIRONMENTALLY, SOCIALLY, and POLITICALLY
RELEVANT FILMS AND VIDEOS by Sky Hiatt, Chicago, Baronial Press ( 1992 ) ; FILMS BY GENRE: 775 CATEGORIES, STYLES, TRENDS, AND MOVEMENTS DEFINED WITH A FILMOGRAPHY FOR EACH by Daniel Lopez, McFarland and Co. ( 1993 ) ; HOLLYWOOD AND AMERICAN HISTORY: A FILMOGRAPHY OF OVER 250 MOTION PICTURES DEPICTING U.S. HISTORY by Michael R. Pitts, McFarland and Co. ( 1984 ) ; FACETS AFRICAN-AMERICAN VIDEO GUIDE by Patrick Ogle, Facets Multimedia, Inc. ( 1994 ) . Teachers interested in farther enquiry and utile background information should look into out BIO-PICS: HOW HOLLYWOOD CONSTRUCTED PUBLIC HISTORY by George F. Custen, Rutgers University Press ( 1992 ) and HISTORY BY HOLLYWOOD: THE Use AND ABUSE OF THE AMERICAN PAST by Robert Brent Toplin, University of Illinois Press ( 1996 ) . Two different
positions are provided by George Macdonald Frasier & # 8217 ; s lively and acerb THE HOLLYWOOD HISTORY OF THE WORLD: FROM ONE MILLION YEARS B.C. TO APOCALYPSE NOW published by Beech Tree Books, ( 1988 ) , and the exhibition catalog HOLLYWOOD AND HISTORY: COSTUME DESIGN IN FILM organized by Edward Maeder, Los Angeles County Museum of Art ( 1987 ) .
Educators interested in posting historical inquiries refering the production and distribution of movies and the industry can subscribe to the Film History listserv. To subscribe, direct the message SUBSCRIBE H-FILM Firstname Surname, Affiliation ( for illustration, SUBSCRIBE H-FILM Matthew Paris, Indiana University ) to LISTSERV @ msu.edu.
Net surfboarders may desire to look at & # 8220 ; Screening the Past: An International Electronic Journal of Visual Media and History & # 8221 ; at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.latrobe.edu.au/www/screeningthepast and & # 8220 ; Film & A ; History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Film and Television Studies & # 8221 ; at hypertext transfer protocol: //h-net2.msu.edu/ filmhis/ . More information on media literacy can be acquired through the Center for Media Literacy in Los Angeles, California, telephone: 213-931-4177 ; FAX: 213-931-4474 ; World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.medialit.org/ .