Organizational Commitmment Essay, Research Paper
What is organizational committedness?
Why should director desire it in their work force?
Is there any cost effectual manner to procure it?
The construct of organizational committedness ( OC ) is non easy to depict. By analyzing the literature on OC it becomes evident that there is small consensus as to the significance of the term.
As the country has grown and developed, research workers from assorted subjects have ascribed their ain significance to the subject. This is one of the grounds why specifying OC is hard. One definition is & # 8220 ; Giving all of yourself while at work & # 8221 ; ( Martin and Nicolls ) . This definition is non really specific nor is it precise. A 2nd definition says that work committedness come into being & # 8220 ; When a individual, by doing a side-bet, links immaterial involvements with a consistent line of activity. & # 8221 ; ( Becker, 1960 ) This definition focuses chiefly on activities and behavior in OC. A 3rd definition explains OC as & # 8220 ; an attitude or an orientation towards the administration which links or attaches the individuality of the individual to the organisation. & # 8221 ; ( Sheldon, 1971 )
The two last definitions differ from each other in their apprehension of OC. The 2nd focuses chiefly on behaviors while the 3rd is more based on attitude and designation. A good definition should cover the attitudinal-behavioural duality and one definition that does that is Richard T Mowday et al & # 8217 ; s ( 1982 ) definition:
This definition represents something more than the old because it says that OC goes beyond mere inactive trueness to an administration. It sees committedness to an administration as an active relationship with the administration such that persons are willing to give something of themselves in order to lend to the administration & # 8217 ; s good being. Mowday & # 8217 ; s definition can be characterised by at least three factors:
+ A strong belief in and credence of the administration & # 8217 ; s ends and values
+ A willingness to exercise considerable attempt on behalf of the administration and
+ A strong desire to keep rank in the administration
Mowday & # 8217 ; s definition besides has some failings. First it is of import to detect that this definition does non prelude the possibility that persons will besides be committed to other facets of their environment. It merely asserts that regardless of these other possible committednesss the organisationally committed person will be given to exhibit the three features identified. Second, the definition doesn & # 8217 ; t clear up the footings & # 8216 ; designation with & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; engagement in & # 8217 ; . It can be discussed whether this is a good definition since the footings may be understood as equivocal.
Although this is non an ideal definition of OC, it is a definition that gives a good apprehension and account of what OC is.
Furthermore, Staw ( 77 ) differentiates between 2 different types of OC.
Attitudinal committedness: Refers to commitment rooted in an employee & # 8217 ; s designation with the peculiar value system upheld by the carbon monoxide, and a desire to go on working at that place. Behavioural committedness on the other manus, comes approximately through a consistent form of action by an employee over a period of clip, and the manner in which s/he tends to go edge by this behavior and hence reluctant to alter.
The point made here is that attitudinal committedness should take to behavioral committedness and behavioral to attitudinal. Understanding this, we will analyze in portion 3 possible ways directors in which look to ab initio bring forth OC.
There are several possible grounds why directors should desire work committedness in their work force.
Drennan suggest that most directors believe that with existent committedness from staff the public presentation of their concern could better dramatically. Beside an increased public presentation the work will besides be a better topographic point to work.
The empirical surveies carried out on the subject of OC represent a rich aggregation of findings with regard to both the ancestors and the effects of the concept. Here is a short account of five possible results that has been studied.
+ Job Performance:
Few of import correlativities have emerged in surveies, although the correlativities are systematically in a predicted way and frequently reached statistical significance. ( Mowday et al. , 1974 ; Porter, Crampon, & A ; Smith, 1976 ; Steers, 1977a ) Therefore we should anticipate committedness to act upon the sum of attempt an employee puts Forth on the occupation and this attempts should hold some influence on existent public presentation.
Committed employees are wishful of staying with the administration. Highly important, positive correlativities have been found between increased term of office and increases committedness in Mowday 1974 and Steer 1977 surveies.
Theory would foretell that extremely committed employees would be more motivated to go to so they could ease organizational end attainment. Modest support can be found in several surveies like F.J. Smith, 1977 ; Steers, 1977a, but this support is non wholly consistent ( Angle & A ; Perry, 1981 ) .
When an emp
loyee’s committednesss lie outside the administration ( e.g. avocation, household ) , less internal force per unit area would be exerted on the employee to go to ( Morgan & Herman, 1976 ) .
We could state that committedness may stand for an influence on attending motive.
In a survey by Angle and Perry ( 1981 ) , committedness was found to be strongly and reciprocally related to employee tardiness. The theory underlying the concept suggests that extremely committed employees are likely to prosecute in behaviors consistent with their attitudes toward the administration. Coming to work on clip would surely stand for one such behavior.
+ Employee turnover:
The strongest or most predictable behavioral result of employee committedness should be reduced turnover, which are shown in five surveies. ( Angle & A ; Perry, 1981, Hom et al. , 1979 ; Koch & A ; Steers, 1978 ; Mowday et al. , 1979 ; Steers, 1977a )
In a 6th survey, a longitudinal design was used to track committedness degrees over clip among a sample of psychiatric technicians. ( Porter et al. , 1974 ) Again committedness was found to be significantly and reciprocally related to subsequent turnover.
Using the theoretical account suggested by Mowday et Al, we look at the development of OC in 3 phases. What should be clear here is the significance of the early portion of the company & # 8217 ; s relationship with an employee in seeking OC. Here we refer in peculiar to recruitment and initiation patterns of the house.
( 1 ) Pre-entry:
Employee features: Choose people whose values, beliefs, etc in some manner fit with those of the house.
Nb. The function of this & # 8216 ; fit & # 8217 ; in procuring attitudinal committedness is important
Employee Expectations: Make certain these correspond with the worlds of the occupation
( 2 ) Early employment
Job Design: Increase range leads to increased committedness. Important dimensions Iraqi National Congress: assortment, liberty, feedback, significance, challenge.
– Engagement, group work, and mutuality of undertakings leads to commitment thru greater engagement and besides increased felt duty
– Brand work challenging: Will pull those persons who value work and convey an attitude of accomplishment to the administration.
Management and construction: Integration and supportive/open direction
– Loosen tight supervising and give employees more discretion
Reward System: Internal labor market
Organizational features: Co must be seen as protecting the workers & # 8217 ; involvements while offering employment stableness. Socializing employees is besides of import here, altho small research has been done on either its execution of its utility.
( 3 ) Middle/late calling phases:
Nb. Increasing focal point on behavioral committedness
As term of office additions,
1. Employees & # 8217 ; occupations more likely to inc those dimensions mentioned above in & # 8216 ; Job design & # 8217 ;
2. Higher extrinsic awards + increased value of investings made by employee
3. Workers by and large more socialized in the carbon monoxide
Note: A major factor in act uponing OC which has been ignored intentionally is that of personal experiences and histories that employees bring with them from old occupations, etc. as this is beyond the range of direction intercession.
4. Some remarks to work committedness
In this essay we have chiefly argued that organizational committedness is good and we have explained why director should desire it in their work force. It is besides apparent that holding a strong committed work force has its advantages. One thing we have non mentioned is the disadvantages of a committed work force. Randall ( 1987 ) used the term & # 8220 ; blind & # 8221 ; committedness in depicting a work force that was excessively committed. If you are excessively committed it can take employees to accept the position quo even if the finally means that the company loses its ability to introduce and accommodate to alter.
Another possible drawback to commitment can be illustrated by the illustration of a second-rate employee who has been at for a peculiar org for some clip and who would fight to acquire another occupation elsewhere. In this instance, we assume s/he would be committed to his/her occupation so as non to put on the line losing it.
In this manner, this paper, holding shown that there are many grounds why directors may wish to procure OC and how it can be achieved, has besides highlighted some possible drawbacks that directors should be cognizant of.
Richard T. Mowday, Lyman W. Porter and Richard M. Steers: Employee-Organization Linkages. 1982
Baron Kreps: Strategic Human Resources, Framework for General Managers. 1998
David E. Guest: Is the psychological contract worth taking earnestly? 1998
John Arnold: The Psychological Contract: A Concept in Need of Closer Scrutiny? 1996
Roy J. Lewicki and Barbara B. Bunker: Development and Mantaining Trust in the Work Relationships.
John P. Mayer and Natalie J. Allen: Committedness in the Workplace
B.Staw ; & # 8216 ; The two sides of committedness & # 8217 ; ; Paper presented at the National Meeting of the Academy of Management ; Orlando, Florida ( 1977 )