& A ; Properties Of Gases Essay, Research Paper
Representative Gases & A ; Properties of Gass
1. State the five premises of the Kinetic-Molecular Theory of gases.
a ) Gases consist of big Numberss of bantam atoms. These atoms, normally molecules or atoms, typically occupy a volume about 1000 times larger than occupied by the same figure of atoms in the liquid or solid province. Thus molecules of gases are much further apart than those of liquids or solids.
Most of the volume occupied by a gas is empty infinite. This accounts for the lower denseness of gases compared to liquids and solids, and the fact that gases are easy compressible.
B ) The atoms of a gas are in changeless gesture, traveling quickly in consecutive lines in all waies, and therefore base on ballss kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of atoms overcomes the attractive forces between them except near the temperature at which the gas condenses and becomes a liquid. Gas particles travel in random waies at high velocities.
degree Celsius ) The hits between atoms of a gas and between atoms and container walls are elastic hits. An elastic hit is one in which there is no net loss of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is transferred between two atoms during hits, but the entire kinetic energy of the two atoms remains the same, at changeless temperature and volume.
vitamin D ) There are no forces of attractive force or repulsive force between the atoms of a gas. You can believe of ideal gas molecules as acting like little billiard balls. They move really fast, and when they collide they do non lodge together, but instantly bounce apart.
vitamin E ) The mean kinetic energy of the atoms of a gas is straight relative to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. The kinetic energy of a atom ( or any other traveling object ) is given by the equation: KE = 1/2mv2. Where m is the mass of the atom and V is the speed.
2. List the five belongingss of gases ( add the excess one excessively! )
a ) Expansion Gass do non hold a definite form of definite volume. They fill the full volume of an container in which they are enclosed and presume its form. A gas transferred from 1-L to a 2-L vas will rapidly spread out to make full the full 2-L volume.
B ) Fluidity Because the attractive forces between gas atoms are negligible, gas atoms glide easy past one another. This ability to flux causes gases to demo mechanical behaviour similar to that of liquids. Because liquids and gases flow, they are referred to jointly as fluids.
degree Celsiuss ) Low denseness The denseness of a substance in the gaseous province is about 1/1000 the denseness of the same substance in the liquid or solid province because the atoms are so much farther apart in the gaseous province. For illustration, O gas has a denseness of.001 g/mL, at 0.C and 1 atmosphere force per unit area. As
liquid at -183.C, O has a denseness of 1.149 g/mL.
vitamin D ) Compressibility During the compaction of a gas, the gas atoms which are ab initio really far apart, are crowded closer together. Under sufficient compaction, the volume of a given sample of gas can be decreased 1000s of times. The steel cylinders incorporating N, O, or other gases under force per unit area that are widely used in industry illustrate this point. Such cylinders have internal volume of about 55 L. When they returned & # 8220 ; empty & # 8221 ; at ordinary force per unit areas, they contain about 55 L of gas, although when they were delivered & # 8220 ; full & # 8221 ; they may hold had 100 times as many molecules of gas compressed within the same cylinder.
vitamin E ) Diffusion Gass spread out and blend with one another without stirring and in the absence of go arounding currents. If the stopper is removed from a container of ammonium hydroxide, the presence of this gas, which irritates the eyes, nose, and pharynx, shortly becomes apparent. Finally, the ammonium hydroxide mixes uniformly with the air in the room, as the random and uninterrupted gesture of the ammonium hydroxide molecules carries them throughout the available infinite. The self-generated commixture of the atoms of two substances because of their random gesture is referred to as diffusion.
degree Fahrenheit ) Effort Gases besides have the ability to exercise force per unit area on a surface.
3. Methods of production of the representative gases.
1 ) Balanced equations required:
a ) Oxygen ( 2 methods ) : One method of readying is break uping H peroxide. Oxygen can be
prepared by go throughing H peroxide through a accelerator, manganese dioxide. It is so collected by
H2O supplanting. The 2nd method is break uping H2O through electrolysis. Electricity is base on ballss
though H2O, dividing Hydrogen and Oxygen. Method 1: 2H2O2 ( aq ) -MnO2 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) + O2 ( g ) .
Method 2: 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) -electrical energy 2H2 ( g ) + O2 ( g ) .
B ) Ozone ( 1 method ) : If adequate energy is present, O2 will go O3. Method:
3O2 ( g ) + energy 2O3 ( g ) .
degree Celsius ) Hydrogen ( 2 methods ) : One of the methods of fixing Hydrogen is merely like fixing Oxygen, through the usage of electrolysis.
Method 1: Method 2: 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) -electrical energy 2H2 ( g ) + O2 ( g ) . Another normally used method is responding metals with acids. Method
2: Zn ( s ) + H2SO4 ( aq ) ZnSO4 ( aq ) + H2 ( g ) .
vitamin D ) Ammonia ( 1 method ) : The Haber Process is the catalytic systhesis of ammonium hydroxide from N gas and
H gas. Method: N2 ( g ) + 3H2 ( g ) xcatalyst 2NH3 ( g ) .
2 ) Description of method required:
a ) Carbon Dioxide: Carbon dioxide is normally produced when burning of C compounds occur, decompose carbonates, and aerophilic respiration.
B ) Carbon Monoxide: Carbon Monoxide is normally produced when uncomplete burning occurs. Most C monoxide comes from the exhuast of autos.
degree Celsius ) Nitrogen: In labortories, Nitrogen is produced by heating certain compounds that contain ammonium hydroxide.
4. List the physical and chemical belongingss of gases in SQ 8.
Oxygen: Physical & # 8211 ; Oxygen is a gas that is odourless, colorless, tasteless, and is denser than air. It appears to be a pale blue colour when in liquid and solid provinces. Chemical & # 8211 ; Very negatively charged and tends to organize oxides and peroxides.
Ozone: Physical & # 8211 ; Ozone is a gas that is acrid, pale blue in colour, and gustatory sensations piercingly. Its Lewis Dot construction is resonance.
Nitrogen: Physical & # 8211 ; Nitrogen is a gas that is odourless, colorless, tasteless, and less dense than air.
The liquid provinces is normally used for stop deading affecting medical intents. It appears white in its solid signifier.
Chemical & # 8211 ; Because of its ternary bond, N is non really reactive. It tends to respond with hydrocarbons to organize photochemical smog.
Ammonia water: Physical & # 8211 ; Ammonis is a gas that is strong and pungent, it is colourless, and gustatory sensations bitter.
Carbon Dioxide: Physical & # 8211 ; Carbon Dioxide is a gas that is distinguishable in aroma, colorless, and tastes rancid. It s denser than air and its Lewis Structure is resonance. Chemical & # 8211 ; Extremely stable, perfectly does non back up burning.
Carbon Monoxide: Physical/Chemical & # 8211 ; Carbon Monoxide is a gas that is really toxic and about impossible to state if it is present. Hemoglobin is besides 300 times more sesceptible to Carbon Monoxide than Oxygen.
Hydrogen: Physical & # 8211 ; Hydrogen is a gas that is odourless, colorless, tasteless, and less dense than air.
It is clear in both liquid and solid provinces, it appears to be ice-like in its solid province. Chemical & # 8211 ; Hydrgen is extremely reactive. It fundamentally reactes with anyting around it. Largely in existance with compounds affecting non-metals.
5. Know some of the utilizations of the gases in SQ8.
Oxygen: Normally used in aerophilic respiration and burning. Nitrogen: Normally used to stop dead things for medical intents, chilling, and propellent for aerosol merchandises, besides used to prolong life of nutrient merchandises.
Carbon Dioxide: Normally used in baking to do dough rise, used for freeze, workss use it for bring forthing glucose, and fire asphyxiators.
Hydrogen: Normally used for hydrogenation and fuel.
6. A colorless, odorless and tasteless gas is found. What are some of the trials and retults which can be used to place the gas? Which gases can be eliminated based on olfactory property? Color? Which gas is most hard to place?
Possibilities for colorless odorless and tasteless gas: Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen.
If Oxygen was in a trial tubing and you placed a buring splint up to it, it should suck the fire in and do a & # 8220 ; pop & # 8221 ; sound. Or it would re-ignite a radiance splint. oOnly Oxygen and Ozone have colour in their liquid and solid provinces. oOnly Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, and Ammonia have odor.
The most hard gas to identigy would be Hydrogen.
7. Define allotrope
Allotrope & # 8211 ; One of the two or more signifiers of an component that exists in the same physical province.
8. What is a eudiometer?
Eudiometer & # 8211 ; A eudiometer is a gas roll uping tubing.
9. What kinds of attractive forces exists between molecules? Describe all three. How are these attractive forces different from those we stuidied antecedently?
Intermolecular forces & # 8211 ; The forces of attractive force between molecules.
Dipole-dipole forces & # 8211 ; The forces of attractive force between polar molecules.
London scattering forces & # 8211 ; Intermolecular attractive forces ensuing from the changeless gesture of negatrons and the creative activity of intantaneous dipoles and induced dipoles.
10. What is an ideal gas? When does a existent gas behave like an ideal gas?
An ideal gas is a gas that fits the kinetic molecular theory absolutely.
Baronial gases tend to act like an ideal gas. Real gases behave like an ideal gas when it fits the 5 premises of KMT.