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Robert Burns Woodward Essay, Research Paper

Biography of Robert Burns Woodward

Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston on April 10th, 1917, the lone kid

of Margaret and Arthur Woodward, of English ancestors. Robert & # 8217 ; s father Arthur died in

October of 1918, at an early age of merely 33 old ages old.

Robert Woodward was attracted to chemistry at a really early age, and indulged his

gustatory sensation for the scientific discipline in private activities throughout the period of his primary and

secondary instruction in the public schools of Quincy, a suburb of Boston. In 1933, he

entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from which they excluded him because

of inattention to formal surveies at the terminal of the Fall term in 1934. The Institute

governments liberally allowed him to re-enroll in the Fall term of 1935, and he took the

grades of Bachelor of Science in 1936 and Doctor of Philosophy in 1937. Since that clip

he has been associated with Harvard University, as Postdoctoral Fellow ( 1937-1938 ) ,

Member of the Society of Fellows ( 1938-1940 ) , Instructor in Chemistry ( 1941-1944 ) ,

Assistant Professor ( 1944-1946 ) , Associate Professor ( 1946-1950 ) , Professor ( 1950-

1953 ) , Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry ( 1953-1960 ) , and Donner Professor of

Science since 1960. After all of these things that he did, it & # 8217 ; s no admiration why he was on his

manner to a Nobel award in the close hereafter. In 1963 he assumed way of the Woodward

Research Institute at Basel. In 1965 was when he recieved his Nobel award for his

outstanding achievments in organic synthesis. His surveies brought cognition to the universe

and opened doors for ulterior scientists that were in his field of organic synthesis. He was a

member of the Corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( 1966-1971 ) ,

and he was a Member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute of Science.

Robert Woodward has been really fortunate, ( which was a small unusual ) , in the

outstanding personal qualities and scientific capablenesss of a big proportion of his more

than two 100 and 50 confederates in Cambridge, and recently in Basel, of whom

more than half have assumed academic places. He has besides on legion occasions

enjoyed exceptionally stimulating and fruitful coaction with fellow-scientists in

research labs other than his ain. His involvements in chemical science are broad, but the chief sphere of

his first-hand battle has been the probe of natural merchandises, or organic

chemical science & # 8212 ; a sphere he regards as & # 8220 ; infinitely intriguing in itself, & # 8221 ; and one which

nowadayss limitless and alone chances for the find, proving, development

and polish of general rules.

Professor Woodward holds more than twenty honorary grades of which merely a

few I listed here: D.Sc. Wesleyan University, 1945 ; D. Sc. Harvard University, 1957 ; D.

Sc. University of Cambridge ( England ) , 1964 ; D. Sc. Brandeis University, 1965 ; D. Sc.

Israel Institute of Technology ( Haifa ) , 1966 ; D.Sc. University of Western Ontario

( Canada ) , 1968 ; D.Sc. University de Louvain ( Belgium ) , 1970.

Some of the awards presented to him I listed here: John Scott Medal ( Franklin

Institute and City of Philadelphia ) , 1945 ; Backeland Medal ( North Jersey Section of the

American Chemical Society ) , 1955 ; Davy Medal ( Royal Society ) , 1959 ; Roger Adams

Medal ( American Chemical Society ) , 1961 ; Pius XI Gold Medal ( Pontifical Academy of

Sciences ) , 1969 ; National

Medal of Science ( United States of America ) , 1964 ; Willard

Gibbs Medal ( Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society ) , 1967 ; Lavoisier Medal

( Society Chimique de France ) , 1968 ; The Order of the Rising Sun, Second Class ( His

Majesty the Emperor of Japan ) , 1970 ; Hanbury Memorial Medal ( The Pharmaceutical

Society of Great Britain ) , 1970 ; Pierre Brnylants Medal ( University de Louvain ) , 1970.

Robert Woodward is a member of the National Academy of Sciences ; Fellow of

the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Honorary Member of the German Chemical

Society ; Honorary Fellow of The Chemical Society ; Foreign Member of the Royal

Society ; Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; Corresponding Member of the

Austrian Academy of Sciences ; Member of the American Philosophical Society ; Honorary

Member of the Belgian Chemical Society ; Honorary Fellow of the Indian Academy of

Sciences ; Honorary Member of the Swiss Chemical Society ; Member of the Deutsche

Academe der Naturforscher ( Leopoldina ) ; Foreign Member of the Academia Nazionale

dei Lincei ; Honorary Fellow of the Weizmann Institute of Science ; Honorary Member of

the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Robert Woodward & # 8217 ; s matrimonies include Irja Pullman in 1938, who he subsequently divorced,

and so married Eudoxia Muller in 1946. He has three girls: Siiri Anne ( B. 1939 ) ,

Jean Kirsten ( B. 1944 ) , and Crystal Elisabeth ( B. 1947 ) , and a boy, Eric Richard Arthur ( B.

1953 ) .

Organic Chemistry and the Modern Era

Organic chemical science developed extensively in the 19th cent. , prompted in portion by

Friedrich Wohler & # 8217 ; s synthesis of carbamide ( 1828 ) , which disproved the belief that merely populating

beings could bring forth organic molecules. Other of import organic chemists include

Justus von Liebig, C. A. Wurtz, and J. B. Dumas. In 1852 Edward Frankland introduced

the thought of valency ( see valency ) , and in 1858 F. A. Kekule showed that C atoms are

tetravalent and are linked together in ironss. Kekule & # 8217 ; s ring construction for benzine opened

the manner to modern theories of organic chemical science. Henri Louis Le Ch? telier, J. H. van & # 8217 ; T

Hoff, and Wilhelm Ostwald pioneered the application of thermodynamics to chemistry.

Further parts were the stage regulation of J. W. Gibbs, the ionisation equilibrium theory

of S. A. Arrhenius, and the heat theorem of Walther Nernst. Ernst Fischer & # 8217 ; s work on the

amino acids marks the beginning of molecular biological science.

At the terminal of the 19th cent. , the find of the negatron by J. J. Thomson and of

radiation by A. E. Becquerel revealed the close connexion between chemical science and

natural philosophies. The work of Ernest Rutherford, H. G. J. Moseley, and Niels Bohr on atomic

construction ( see atom ) was applied to molecular constructions. G. N. Lewis, Irving Langmuir,

and Linus Pauling developed the electronic theory of chemical bonds, directed valency,

and molecular orbitals ( see molecular orbital theory ) . Transmutation of the elements, foremost

achieved by Rutherford, has led to the creative activity of elements non found in nature ; in work

pioneered by Glenn Seaborg elements heavier than U have been produced. With the

rapid development of polymer chemical science after World War II a host of new man-made fibres

and stuffs have been added to the market. A Fuller apprehension of the relation

between the construction of molecules and their belongingss has allowed chemists to orient

predictively new stuffs to run into specific demands.

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