Robert Burns Woodward Essay, Research Paper
Biography of Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston on April 10th, 1917, the lone kid
of Margaret and Arthur Woodward, of English ancestors. Robert & # 8217 ; s father Arthur died in
October of 1918, at an early age of merely 33 old ages old.
Robert Woodward was attracted to chemistry at a really early age, and indulged his
gustatory sensation for the scientific discipline in private activities throughout the period of his primary and
secondary instruction in the public schools of Quincy, a suburb of Boston. In 1933, he
entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from which they excluded him because
of inattention to formal surveies at the terminal of the Fall term in 1934. The Institute
governments liberally allowed him to re-enroll in the Fall term of 1935, and he took the
grades of Bachelor of Science in 1936 and Doctor of Philosophy in 1937. Since that clip
he has been associated with Harvard University, as Postdoctoral Fellow ( 1937-1938 ) ,
Member of the Society of Fellows ( 1938-1940 ) , Instructor in Chemistry ( 1941-1944 ) ,
Assistant Professor ( 1944-1946 ) , Associate Professor ( 1946-1950 ) , Professor ( 1950-
1953 ) , Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry ( 1953-1960 ) , and Donner Professor of
Science since 1960. After all of these things that he did, it & # 8217 ; s no admiration why he was on his
manner to a Nobel award in the close hereafter. In 1963 he assumed way of the Woodward
Research Institute at Basel. In 1965 was when he recieved his Nobel award for his
outstanding achievments in organic synthesis. His surveies brought cognition to the universe
and opened doors for ulterior scientists that were in his field of organic synthesis. He was a
member of the Corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( 1966-1971 ) ,
and he was a Member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Robert Woodward has been really fortunate, ( which was a small unusual ) , in the
outstanding personal qualities and scientific capablenesss of a big proportion of his more
than two 100 and 50 confederates in Cambridge, and recently in Basel, of whom
more than half have assumed academic places. He has besides on legion occasions
enjoyed exceptionally stimulating and fruitful coaction with fellow-scientists in
research labs other than his ain. His involvements in chemical science are broad, but the chief sphere of
his first-hand battle has been the probe of natural merchandises, or organic
chemical science & # 8212 ; a sphere he regards as & # 8220 ; infinitely intriguing in itself, & # 8221 ; and one which
nowadayss limitless and alone chances for the find, proving, development
and polish of general rules.
Professor Woodward holds more than twenty honorary grades of which merely a
few I listed here: D.Sc. Wesleyan University, 1945 ; D. Sc. Harvard University, 1957 ; D.
Sc. University of Cambridge ( England ) , 1964 ; D. Sc. Brandeis University, 1965 ; D. Sc.
Israel Institute of Technology ( Haifa ) , 1966 ; D.Sc. University of Western Ontario
( Canada ) , 1968 ; D.Sc. University de Louvain ( Belgium ) , 1970.
Some of the awards presented to him I listed here: John Scott Medal ( Franklin
Institute and City of Philadelphia ) , 1945 ; Backeland Medal ( North Jersey Section of the
American Chemical Society ) , 1955 ; Davy Medal ( Royal Society ) , 1959 ; Roger Adams
Medal ( American Chemical Society ) , 1961 ; Pius XI Gold Medal ( Pontifical Academy of
Sciences ) , 1969 ; National
Medal of Science ( United States of America ) , 1964 ; Willard
Gibbs Medal ( Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society ) , 1967 ; Lavoisier Medal
( Society Chimique de France ) , 1968 ; The Order of the Rising Sun, Second Class ( His
Majesty the Emperor of Japan ) , 1970 ; Hanbury Memorial Medal ( The Pharmaceutical
Society of Great Britain ) , 1970 ; Pierre Brnylants Medal ( University de Louvain ) , 1970.
Robert Woodward is a member of the National Academy of Sciences ; Fellow of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Honorary Member of the German Chemical
Society ; Honorary Fellow of The Chemical Society ; Foreign Member of the Royal
Society ; Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; Corresponding Member of the
Austrian Academy of Sciences ; Member of the American Philosophical Society ; Honorary
Member of the Belgian Chemical Society ; Honorary Fellow of the Indian Academy of
Sciences ; Honorary Member of the Swiss Chemical Society ; Member of the Deutsche
Academe der Naturforscher ( Leopoldina ) ; Foreign Member of the Academia Nazionale
dei Lincei ; Honorary Fellow of the Weizmann Institute of Science ; Honorary Member of
the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
Robert Woodward & # 8217 ; s matrimonies include Irja Pullman in 1938, who he subsequently divorced,
and so married Eudoxia Muller in 1946. He has three girls: Siiri Anne ( B. 1939 ) ,
Jean Kirsten ( B. 1944 ) , and Crystal Elisabeth ( B. 1947 ) , and a boy, Eric Richard Arthur ( B.
1953 ) .
Organic Chemistry and the Modern Era
Organic chemical science developed extensively in the 19th cent. , prompted in portion by
Friedrich Wohler & # 8217 ; s synthesis of carbamide ( 1828 ) , which disproved the belief that merely populating
beings could bring forth organic molecules. Other of import organic chemists include
Justus von Liebig, C. A. Wurtz, and J. B. Dumas. In 1852 Edward Frankland introduced
the thought of valency ( see valency ) , and in 1858 F. A. Kekule showed that C atoms are
tetravalent and are linked together in ironss. Kekule & # 8217 ; s ring construction for benzine opened
the manner to modern theories of organic chemical science. Henri Louis Le Ch? telier, J. H. van & # 8217 ; T
Hoff, and Wilhelm Ostwald pioneered the application of thermodynamics to chemistry.
Further parts were the stage regulation of J. W. Gibbs, the ionisation equilibrium theory
of S. A. Arrhenius, and the heat theorem of Walther Nernst. Ernst Fischer & # 8217 ; s work on the
amino acids marks the beginning of molecular biological science.
At the terminal of the 19th cent. , the find of the negatron by J. J. Thomson and of
radiation by A. E. Becquerel revealed the close connexion between chemical science and
natural philosophies. The work of Ernest Rutherford, H. G. J. Moseley, and Niels Bohr on atomic
construction ( see atom ) was applied to molecular constructions. G. N. Lewis, Irving Langmuir,
and Linus Pauling developed the electronic theory of chemical bonds, directed valency,
and molecular orbitals ( see molecular orbital theory ) . Transmutation of the elements, foremost
achieved by Rutherford, has led to the creative activity of elements non found in nature ; in work
pioneered by Glenn Seaborg elements heavier than U have been produced. With the
rapid development of polymer chemical science after World War II a host of new man-made fibres
and stuffs have been added to the market. A Fuller apprehension of the relation
between the construction of molecules and their belongingss has allowed chemists to orient
predictively new stuffs to run into specific demands.