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Roman Catholicism Essay, Research Paper

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How clear is your apprehension of Protestant divinity? Test yourself and see. Evaluate each of the fol-lowing 10 paired statements and tag the 1 that you think best states a Protestant doctrinal place.

( 1a ) God gives a adult male right standing with Himself by mercifully accounting him guiltless and virtuous. ( 1b ) God gives a adult male right standing with Himself by really doing him into an guiltless and virtuous per-son.

( 2a ) God gives a adult male right standing with Himself by puting Christ? s goodness and virtuousness to his recognition. ( 2b ) God gives a adult male right standing with Himself by seting Christ? s goodness and virtuousness into his bosom.

( 3a ) God accepts the truster because of the moral excellence found in Jesus Christ. ( 3b ) God makes the truster acceptable by inculcating Christ? s moral excellence into his life.

( 4a ) If a evildoer becomes? born-again? ( the regenerat-ing, transforming procedure of character ) , he will accomplish right standing with God. ( 4b ) If the evildoer is granted right standing with God through religion ( ? born-again? ) , he will so see transmutation of character.

( 5a ) We receive right standing with God by faith entirely. ( 5b ) We receive right standing with God by religion which has become active by love.

( 6a ) We achieve right standing with God by holding Christ live out His life of obeisance in us. ( 6b ) We achieve right standing with God by accepting the fact that He obeyed the jurisprudence absolutely for us.

( 7a ) We achieve right standing with God by following Christ? s illustration by the aid of His enabling grace. ( 7b ) We follow Christ? s illustration because His life has given us right standing with God.

( 8a ) God first pronounces that we are good in His sight, so gives us His Spirit to do us good. ( 8b ) God sends His Spirit to do us good, and so He will articulate that we are good.

( 9a ) Jesus? s finished work on the cross and interces-sion at God? s right manus gives us favour in the sight of God. ( 9b ) It is the indwelling Christ that gives us favour in God? s sight.

( 10a ) Merely by the imputation of Christ? s righteousness through religion can we to the full satisfy the claims of the Ten Commandments. ( 10b ) By the power of the Holy Spirit life in us, we can to the full fulfill the claims of the Ten Commandments.

Correct Responses:

& # 183 ; Protestant: 1a, 2a, 3a, 4b, 5a, 6b, 7b, 8a, 9a, 10a.

& # 183 ; Roman Catholic: 1b, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5b, 6a, 7a, 8b, 9b, 10b.

Part One:

Catholic Theology

One: Authority

Introduction

Behavior among the people of God is defined by doctrinal beliefs, and doctrinal beliefs are rooted in some beginning of authorization. The inquiry of authorization is basic, it is the foundation of any spiritual system. Roman Catholi-cism and Protestantism ab initio and basically split around the inquiry of authorization. The doctrinal differences that form the sweep that separates the two arise from the distinctively different voices of authorization which underpin them.

Authority in Protestantism

Protestantism contends that the Bibles are the exclusive beginning of authorization for the truster & # 8211 ; hence, sola scriptura, or, Scripture entirely every bit important. sola scriptura ( along with sola fide & # 8211 ; faith entirely ) was the beat uping call of the Reformers. They realized anew that the Bible entirely is vested with absolute authorization. It entirely is the usher for the truster? s religion and life. Protestant belief in the Bible as the individual beginning of authorization consequences in the subordination of all beliefs and patterns to the Bible. Those beliefs and patterns which are counter to the Bibles are expected to be discarded and replaced by those which are clearly scriptural.

Every spiritual motion that develops some integrity and continues to populate has its traditions. These traditions gather up the beliefs, thought, patterns and regulations of the group, peculiarly as these are expressed in its doctrinal criterions and signifiers of authorities. In this mode the motion gives stableness to and regulates its ain mode of life, and hands that stableness and mode of life on to the following coevals.

We do non reject all tradition, but instead make wise usage of it in so far as it accords with Scrip-ture and is founded on truth. We should, for case, dainty with regard and survey with attention the confessions and council dictums of the assorted churches, peculiarly those of the ancient church and of Reformation yearss. We should besides give careful attending to the confessions and council determinations of the present twenty-four hours churches, size uping most carefully of class those of the de-nomination to which we belong. But we do non give any church the right to explicate new doc-trine or to do determinations contrary to the instruction of Scripture. The history of the church at big shows all excessively clearly that church leaders and church councils can and make do errors, some of them serious. Consequently their determinations should hold no authorization except as they are based on Scripture.

Protestants & # 8230 ; maintain these criterions purely subordinate to Scripture, and in that they are of all time ready to re-examine them for that intent. In other words they insist that in the life of the church Scrip-ture is primary and the denominational criterions are low-level or secondary. Therefore they use their traditions with one commanding cautiousness: they continually ask if this or that facet of their belief and pattern is true to the Bible. They subject every statement of tradition to that trial, and they are willing to alter any component that fails to run into that trial.

Fidelity to the Bible is the truster? s arm against dearly-won religious via media and mistake. Faithfulness to Scripture translates into fidelity to God in the life of the truster.

Authority in Roman Catholicism

In contrast to the Protestant place of sola scriptura, Roman Catholicism finds its beginning of authorization in three countries: the Bible, Tradition, and the learning authorization of the Church, or the Magisterium. Roman Catholic paperss province:

Sacred Tradition and sacred Scripture, so, are bound closely together, and pass on one with the other. For both of them, fluxing out of the same Godhead well-spring, come together in some manner to organize one thing, and travel toward the same end. Sacred Bible is the address of God as it is put down in composing under the breath of the Holy Spirit. And Tradition transmits in its en-tirety the Word of God which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and by the Holy Spirit. It transmits it to the replacements of the apostles so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may dependably continue, expound and spread it abroad by their sermon. Thus it comes about that the Church does non pull her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures entirely. Hence, both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honored with equal feelings of devotedness and fear.

Sacred Tradition and sacred Scripture make up a individual sacred sedimentation of the Word of God, which is entrusted to the Church. By adhering to it the full sanctum people, united to its curates, remains ever faithful to the instruction of the apostles, to the brotherhood, to the breakage of staff of life and the supplications ( californium. Acts 2:42 Hellenic ) . So, in maintaining, practising and professing the religion that has been handed on there should be a singular harmoniousness between the bishops and the faithful.

But the undertaking of giving an reliable reading of the Word of God, whether in its written signifier or in the signifier of Tradition, has been entrusted to the life learning office of the Church entirely.

It is clear, hence, that, in the supremely wise agreement of God, sacred Tradition, sacred Scripture and the Magisterium of the Church are so affiliated and associated that one of them can non stand without the others. Working together, each in its ain manner under the action of the one Holy Spirit, they all contribute efficaciously to the redemption of psyches.

Roman authorization resides, so, in the? Word of God? as the beginning and the teaching office of the Church as translator.

For Discussion:

1. Identify some traditions that are present in the Protestant sub-culture today. Where do these traditions come from? How make our traditions benefit us? How do they ache us? What power do traditions keep over us?

2. What traditions have influenced your religious nurturing? Have you of all time challenged a tradition that you have grown up with and changed it after detecting that it lacked obliging scriptural support? Are you unfastened to such personal challenge? Are there elements of your personal religion that need to be challenged by Scripture?

3. How does the use of? The Word of God? differ between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism?

The Bible

Inspiration

Roman Catholicism embraces the inspiration of the Scriptures.

In Sacred Scripture, the Church invariably finds her nourishment and strength, for she welcomes it non as a human word, ? but as what it truly is, the word of God. ? [ Note the lower instance? tungsten? in? the word of God. ? ] ? In the sacred books, the Father who is in Eden comes fondly to run into his chil-dren, and negotiations with them. ?

God is the writer of Sacred Scripture. ? The divinely revealed worlds, which are contained and presented in the text of Sacred Scripture, have been written down under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. ?

For Holy Mother Church, trusting on the religion of the apostolic age, accepts as sacred and canonical the books of the Old and the New Testaments, whole and full, with all their parts, on the evidences that, written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their writer and have been handed on as such to the Church herself.

The Text

Roman Catholicism? s Bible differs, nevertheless, from the Protestant Bible. The Roman Catholic Bible contains the Apocrypha & # 8211 ; books contained in the LXX ( Greek Old Testament or Septuagint ) but non contained in the Hebrew Scriptures. The early church and the Reformers questioned the authorization of the Apocryphal books on the footing of their absence from the Hebrew Canon. ? Jerome ( d. A.D. 420 ) declared as apocryphal all those Hagiographas which stood outside the Hebrew Canon, but in his Vulgate Version he included them harmonizing to church pattern, though non without some reservations. ? Jerome? s Latin Vulgate was declared Rome? s official Bible at the Council of Trent in 1546. In making so, it was hence canonized by the Catholic Church. The Latin Vulgate Version entirely was recog-nized as reliable by the Catholic Church.

The Vatican Council of 1870 [ Vatican I ] reaffirmed the declaration of the Council of Trent that? these books of the Old Testament and New Testament are to be received as sacred and canonical, in their unity, with all their parts, as they are enumerated in the edict of the said council, and are contained in the antediluvian Latin edition of the Vulgate. ?

In the twelvemonth 1590 Sixtus V issued an edition of the Vulgate which he declared to be concluding, and pro-hibited under an bete noire the publication of any new editions thenceforth unless they should be ex-actly like that one. However, he died shortly after, and bookmans found legion mistakes in his edition. Two old ages subsequently a new edition was published under Catholic Pope Clement VIII, and that is the 1 in gen-eral usage today.

The Roman Catholic Douay version of the Bible ( New Testament, 1582, and Old Testament, 1609 ) was made from the Latin Vulgate, as are the Roman Catholic interlingual renditions into modern linguistic communications.

Rome? s fear for the Vulgate over the centuries meant that Catholic interlingual renditions of the Bible were lone interlingual renditions of interlingual renditions instead than interlingual renditions of the original Hebrew and Greek manuscripts. Progresss in the quality of the original texts gained by the procedure of textual unfavorable judgment did non profit Rome.

The Church seems to hold shifted in its place toward the Vulgate harmonizing to Vatican II paperss.

& # 8230 ; suited and right interlingual renditions are [ to be ] made into assorted linguistic communications, particularly from the original texts of the sacred books.

Sola Scriptura, Indeed!

The Reformers? committedness to sola scriptura was, no uncertainty, met with many assaults by the Roman Church. Surely they were sometimes over avid in protecting their divinity from possible incursions of tradition. The undermentioned illustrates the unusual extremes to which they were willing to travel to support sola scriptura.

The Hebrew alphabet originally consisted of consonants merely. Few of the vowels had any written notation prior to the age of the Masoretes ( who began their work about A.D. 520 ) . At that clip, Hebrew was falling into dis-use so that people were progressively less familiar with it. Visible representations of the vowel sounds in the He-brew Old Testament had become a necessary crutch. The Masoretes did non contrive the vowel sounds, but? received? them as portion of their tradition: what they did was add marks or? points? to the text as seeable representations of the traditional vowel sounds. This pointed Masoretic Hebrew text became the text that the Reformers relied on, and is still the text on which virtually all modern Protestant interlingual renditions are based.

Some of the Reformers? replacements found themselves embarrassed by these Hebrew points. The points were merely tradition & # 8211 ; something that had been handed down. sola scriptura, so! The Catholics had their? antediluvian and vulgate edition, ? which was translated from the Hebrew prior to the add-on of the vowel points and certified as reliable by the magisterium of the church. The Reformed churches, the Catholics insisted, had no comparable cer-tainty.

Some of the Reformers were uncomfortable with this looking quandary, and undertook to reason that the points, far from being of recent, semisynthetic beginning, had ever existed alongside the consonantal letters and were every bit inspired by God. The flood tide of this was reached in 1675 when the Helvetic Consensus Formula provided that no adult male should be licensed to prophesy the Gospel without first professing his belief in the godly inspiration of the He-brew vowel points! !

Use of the Bible

Historically, the Roman Catholic Church has forbidden the free usage of the Bible by the temporalty. The Council of Trent reaffirmed the earlier Council of Valencia ( 1229 ) with the followers:

In every bit much as it is manifest, from experience, that if the Holy Bible, translated into the vulgar lingua, be randomly allowed to everyone, the audacity of work forces will do more evil than good to originate from it ; it is, on this point, referred to the judgement of the bishops, or interrogators, who may, by the advice of the priest or confessor, permit the reading of the Bible translated into the vulgar lingua by Catholic writers, to those individuals whose religion and piousness, they apprehend, will be aug-mented, and non injured by it ; and this permission they must hold in authorship.

Boettner adds,

Such was the instruction and pattern of the Roman Church for centuries. For one to possess or read the Bible in his native lingua without permission in composing from his superior and under the watch-ful oculus of the bishop was a mortal wickedness, for which absolution could non be granted until the book was delivered to the priest.

The Church has late shifted its place sing the usage of the Bible. Vatican II encourages Bible survey among the temporalty.

Entree to sacred Scripture ought to be broad unfastened to the Christian faithful.

and later,

& # 8230 ; all churchmans, peculiarly priests of Christ and others who, as deacons or catechists, are officially en-gaged in the ministry of the Word, should plunge themselves in the Bibles by changeless sacred reading and diligent survey.

Similarly, the sacred Synod forcefully and specifically exorts all the Christian faithful, particularly those who live the spiritual life, to larn? the exceling cognition of Jesus Christ? ( Phil. 3:8 ) by frequent reading of the Godhead Scriptures. ? Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ. ? Therefore, allow them travel lief to the sacred text itself & # 8230 ; .

For Discussion:

1. Working with 2 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:21, and 1 Corinthians 2:13, compose a statement sing the in-spiration of the Bible. Does the use of Bible transitions to formalize the inspiration of the Bible constitute handbill logical thinking?

2. Protestant doctr

ine remainders on the foundation of the 66 books of the Protestant Bible. Upon what footing do we acknowledge these 66 books as divine and hence important?

3. Irenaeus ( d. c. A.D. 200 ) is said to hold identified tradition and Scripture as one and the same. Is it reason-able to presume that tradition ( that which was given by the apostles ) , one time inscripturated, was replaced by the written paperss?

4. Why did the Roman Church prohibit the common usage of the Scriptures?

5. What might be the possible consequence of free entree to the Bible for Roman Catholics?

6. How does the Catholic Church? s post-Vatican II place on entree to the Bible concern Protestant evan-gelism of Roman Catholics? How might the Bible be utilized in evangelising them?

Tradition

What is Tradition?

Webster defines tradition as? the procedure of passing down information, sentiments, beliefs, and imposts by word of oral cavity or by illustration & # 8230 ; . ? Tradition in Catholic divinity is that which has been handed down from the apos-tles.

Christ the Lord & # 8230 ; commanded the apostles to prophesy the Gospel & # 8230 ; . This Gospel was to be the beginning of all salvaging truth and moral subject. This was faithhfully done: it was done by the apos-tles who handed on, by the spoken word of their sermon, by the illustration they gave, by the insti-tutions they established, what they themselves had received & # 8211 ; whether from the lips of Christ, from his manner of life and his plants, or whether they had learned it at the suggestion of the Holy Spirit & # 8230 ; .

In order that the full and populating Gospel might ever be preserved in the Church the apostles left bishops as their replacements. They gave them? their ain place of learning authorization. ?

Therefore, the apostolic sermon, which is expressed in a particular manner in the divine books, was to be preserved in a uninterrupted line of sequence until the terminal of clip. Hence, the apostles, in passing on what they themselves had received, warn the faithful to keep the traditions which they had learned either by word of oral cavity or by missive & # 8230 ; .

The Catechism adds,

This life transmittal, accomplished in the Holy Spirit, is called Tradition, since it is distinguishable from Sacred Scripture, though closely connected to it. Through Tradition, ? the Church, in her philosophy, life, and worship perpetuates and transmits to every coevals all that she herself is, all that she believes. ? ? The expressions of the Fathers are a informant to the vitalizing presence of this Tradition, demoing how its wealths are poured out in the pattern and life of the Church, in her belief and her supplication. ?

Tradition is Populating

Roman Catholic Tradition so is the apostles? sermon, illustration, and establishments passed down through their replacement bishops and expressed in the life of the Church. This Tradition is said to be populating in that the Holy Spirit maintains the continuity of the unwritten, apostolic Gospel in the Church, and provides growing in penetration into the Tradition through its look in the lives and worship of the faithful.

Catholic theologian Avery Dulles explains,

It had become common, particularly since the Counter-Reformation, to believe of tradition objectively, as a aggregation of truths communicated to the apostles and preserved in the church. Without re-jecting this impression, modern-day Catholicity shows a deeper consciousness that tradition can non be adequately understood as a organic structure of expressed learning. Many philosophies are contained in a simply inexplicit manner in tradition considered as an activity or procedure whereby religion is expressed and trans-mitted.

So, Tradition is non merely a organic structure of truths, but is a? procedure whereby religion is expressed and transmitted. ? The look of the Roman Catholic religion jointly by the faithful continually elucidates the Tradition in such a manner that antecedently unobserved elements of its content become unobscured. In this manner, penetration into the Tradition grows,

The Tradition that comes from the apostles makes advancement in the Church, with the aid of the Holy Spirit. There is a growing in penetration into the worlds and words that are being passed on. This comes approximately in assorted ways. It comes through the contemplation and survey of trusters who pon-der these things in their Black Marias. It comes from the intimate sense of religious worlds which they experience. And it comes from the sermon of those who have received, along with their right of sequence in the episcopate, the certain charism of truth. Therefore, as the centuries go by, the Church is ever progressing towards the plenty of Godhead truth, until finally the words of God are ful-filled in her.

McCarthy remarks about this growing in penetration,

Since what the Church does reflects what the Church believes, the cosmopolitan pattern of the Church is besides considered a dependable informant to the Roman Catholic religion.

The Sensus Fidei

? The sensus fidei refers to the natural sensitiveness and favoritism which the members of the Church possess in affairs of religion. ?

The holy People of God portions besides in Christ? s prophetic office: It spreads abroad a life informant to him, particularly by a life of religion and love and by offering to God a forfeit of congratulations, the fruit of lips praising his name. The whole organic structure of the faithful who have an annointing that comes from the holy one can non mistake in affairs of belief. This characteristic is shown in the supernatural apprecia-tion of the religion ( sensus fidei ) of the whole people, when? from the bishops to the last of the faith-ful? they manifest a cosmopolitan consent in affairs of religion and ethical motives. By this grasp of the religion, aroused and sustained by the Spirit of truth, the People of God, guided by the the sacred instruction authorization ( magisterium ) , and obeying it, receives non the mere word of work forces, but genuinely the word of God, the religion one time for all delivered to the saints. The People unfailingly adheres to this religion, penetrates it more profoundly with right judgement, and applies it more to the full in day-to-day life.

Further Disclosure

Catholic divinity holds that no farther disclosure is to be expected prior to the return of Christ. The sacred sedimentation is complete, though non yet to the full understood. The significance of the Word of God will be progressively under-stood over the class of clip.

& # 8230 ; no new public disclosure is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yet even if Revelation is already complete, it has non been made wholly expressed ; it re-mains for Christian religion bit by bit to hold on its full significance over the class of the centuries.

Boettner adds,

& # 8230 ; the Roman Church & # 8230 ; denies that it formulates any new philosophies at all. Rather it insists that in ex bishop’s throne pronouncements the Holy Spirit enables the Catholic Pope to pull out and proclaim what be-longed to the original disclosure.

For Discussion:

1. What is meant by the construct of? nonsubjective truth? ? What are the dangers of specifying philosophy on the footing of truth that is non nonsubjective?

2. How accessable is the Catholic? Word of God? ?

3. How is? growing in penetration? validated in the instance of non-objective truth?

4. Based on the Roman Catholic apprehension of Tradition, would it be true that the pattern of the Church at any given clip accurately reflects the Gospel of Christ? Can the Church go dissident?

5. Which of the two, Tradition and the Bible, would look to be more embracing? What could this connote about the authorization of Tradition versus that of the Bible?

Church Hierarchy

The sacred sedimentation, Scripture and Tradition, were entrusted by the apostles to the whole Church. The re-sponsibility for construing the sacred sedimentation, nevertheless, lies with the Magisterium & # 8211 ; the bishops headed by the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. The bishops and the Pope are officially considered to be the apostles? replacements.

Apostolic Sequence

This sacred synod [ Vatican II ] , following in the stairss of the First Vatican Council, Teachs and de-clares with it that Jesus Christ, the ageless curate, set up the sanctum Church by intrusting the apostles with their mission as he himself had been sent by the Father ( californium. Jn. 20:21 ) . He willed that their replacements, the bishops viz. , should be the shepherds in his Church until the terminal of the universe. In order that the episcopate itself, nevertheless, might be one and undivided he put Peter at the caput of the other apostles, and in him he set up a lasting and seeable beginning and foundation of the unity both of religion and Communion. This learning refering the establishment, the permanency, the nature and import of the sacred primacy of the Roman Pontiff and his infallible instruction office, the sacred synod proposes afresh to be steadfastly believed by all the faithful, and, continuing undeviatingly with this same project, it proposes to proclaim publically and pronounce clearly the philosophy concern-ing bishops, replacements of the apostles, who together with Peter? s replacement, the Vicar of Christ and the seeable caput of the whole Church, direct the house of the life God.

That divine mission [ the spread of the Gospel ] , which was committed by Christ to the apostles, is destined to last until the terminal of the universe ( californium. Mt. 28:20 ) , since the Gospel, which they were charged to manus on, is, for the Church, the rule of all its life for all clip. For that really ground the apostles were careful to name replacements in this hierarchically constituted society.

In order to carry through such elevated maps [ those ecclesiastical maps of the bishops ] , the apostles were endowed by Christ with a particular spring of the Holy Spirit coming from them ( californium. Acts 1:8 ; 2:4 ; Jn. 20:22-23 ) , and, by the infliction of custodies ( californium. 1 Tim. 4:14 ; 2 Tim. 1:6-7 ) , they passed on to their aides the gift of the Spirit, which is transmitted down to our twenty-four hours through Episcopal consecration.

Hence, the Roman Catholic Church is said to be apostolic? because she is founded on the apostles, ? and? continues to be taught, sanctified, and guided by the apostles & # 8230 ; through their replacements. ?

The Magisterium

& # 8230 ; the undertaking of giving an reliable reading of the Word of God, whether in its written signifier or in the signifier of Tradition, has been entrusted to the life learning office of the Church entirely. Its authorization in this affair is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. Yet this Magisterium is non supe-rior to the Word of God, but is its retainer. It teaches merely what has been handed on to it. At the Godhead bid and with the aid of the Holy Spirit, it listens to this devotedly, guards it with dedication and expounds it dependably. All that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed is drawn from this individual sedimentation of religion.

This means that the undertaking of reading has been entrusted to the bishops in Communion with the replacement of Peter, the Bishop of Rome.

Avery Dulles adds,

Since disclosure is public, the church requires a manner of publically proclaiming the philosophy that ex-presses or precautions that disclosure. Catholics find grounds in the New Testament that Christ commissioned Peter and the apostles with the duty of supervising the life and informant of the church. The Catholic Pope and the other bishops are regarded as replacements, severally, of Peter and the other apostles. One of their most of import undertakings is to maintain the church in the truth of the Gospel by proclaiming sound philosophy and reprobating doctrinal divergences. In this map the hierarchy constitutes the church? s official instruction organic structure, or magisterium.

The Papacy

The Pope, a word which comes from a Latin term significance male parent, is the Bishop of Rome and the caput of the Roman Catholic Church. Harmonizing to Boettner, at his enthronement, the Pope is ternary crowned as the Father of Princes and Kings, Ruler of the World, and Vicar of our Savior Jesus Christ. Later paperss ( i.e. Vatican II ) em-phasize the Pope? s rubric as Vicar of Christ and his supreme ecclesiastical authorization.

& # 8230 ; the Roman Pontiff, by ground of his office as Vicar of Christ, viz. , and as curate of the full Church, has full, supreme, and cosmopolitan power over the whole Church, a power which he can al-ways exercising unhampered.

The Lord made Peter entirely the rock-foundation and the holder of the keys of the Church ( californium. Mt. 16:18-19 ) , and constituted him shepherd of his whole flock ( californium. Jn. 21:15 ff. ) . It is clear, nevertheless, that the office of binding and fring which was given to Peter ( Mt. 16:19 ) , was besides assigned to the college of the apostles united to its caput ( Mt. 18:18 ; 28:16-20 ) .

Harmonizing to the Catechism,

The? power of the keys? designates authorization to regulate the house of God, which is the Church. Je-sus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this authorization after his Resurrection: ? Feed my sheep. ? The power to? bind and free? connotes the authorization to shrive wickednesss, to articulate doctrinal judg-ments, and to do disciplinary determinations in the Church.

Papal Infallibility

The infallibility of the Pope has already been mentioned above. Vatican II addresses apostolic infallibility, which extends to the college of bishops when they exercise the supreme Magisterium.

The Roman Pontiff & # 8230 ; enjoys this infallibility in virtuousness of his office, when, as supreme curate and instructor of all the faithful & # 8230 ; he proclaims in an absolute determination a philosophy refering to faith or ethical motives. For that ground his definitions are said to be irreformable by their very nature and non by ground of the acquiescence of the Church, in every bit much as they were made with the aid of the Holy Spirit promised to him in the individual of blest Peter himself ; and as a effect they are in no manner in demand of the blessing of others, and do non acknowledge of entreaty to any other court. For in such a instance the Roman Pontiff does non express a dictum as a private individual, but instead does he elaborate and support the instruction of the Catholic religion as the supreme instructor of the cosmopolitan Church, in whom the Church? s charism of infallibility is present in a remarkable manner.

Dulles further explains,

When Catholics speak of the infallibility of the Magisterium they mean that in certain specified acts the Catholic Popes and bishops, learning philosophy refering religion and ethical motives in a manner that binds the whole church, are divinely protected from falling into mistake. & # 8230 ; the Catholic Pope can learn infallibly when, in his capacity as replacement of Peter ( ex bishop’s throne ) , he proclaims by a unequivocal act some philosophy to be held by all the faithful on the footing of godly disclosure.

For Discussion:

1. What scriptural support exists for the construct of apostolic sequence? How does Hebrews 5:4-6 and 1 Peter 2:9 inform this?

2. How of import is the construct of apostolic sequence to the construction, continuity and claim to authorization of the Roman Catholic Church?

3. Vatican II articulates the subservience of the Magisterium to the Word of God. At the same clip, the Mag-isterium is vested with the exclusive authorization to construe it. What are the possible dangers of the Magisterium? s authorization?

4. How would you react to Roman Catholicism? s use of Mt. 16:18-19 and John 21:15ff to back up the primacy of Peter? Provide an alternate reading of these transitions.

5. What conditions would be required for infallibility to use to a statement from the Vatican? Would docu-ments such as Vatican II and the Catechism be considered infallible?

Two: The Church

The Catholic Church

There was a clip when every Christian was pleased to place with the Catholic church & # 8211 ; Catholic with a little? degree Celsius, ? that is. Following Pentecost, the Gospel spread quickly. Despite seasons of in-tense and violent persecution, pockets of trusters emerged throughout the Roman Empire. These early Christians held to a common religion and enjoyed a God-given affinity wherever they met. Paul? s instruction of the church as one organic structure made up of all true trusters provided a theological under-standing of this new relationship ( 1 Corinthians 12:12-31 ) .

Early Christians used the term Catholic, a Grecian word significance refering the whole, to depict this world-wide nature of the church. When early Christians referred to the Catholic religion, they were talking of the religion of the whole or cosmopolitan church. The oldest papers incorporating the term is a missive by Ignatius from the early 2nd century. He wrote, ? Wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic

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