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Contentss

I. Introduction

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1.1. General features of the work

2.1. General features of the secret plan

II. The Main Part

1. 2. Critical overview on the drama

2. 2. Peculiarities of important scenes ( topics and subjects )

3. 2. & # 8220 ; Romeo and Juliet & # 8221 ; and their chief characters

4. 2. Character relationship of Romeo and Juliet with Mercutio and Nurse

5. 2. The linguistic communication of the drama

6. 2. Peculiarities of stagecraft

7. 2. Contrasting the movie and the drama

8. 2. Comparing A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream and Romeo and Juliet ( Lesson Plan )

III. Decision

1.3. Analyzing Romeo and Juliet – standard for appraisal

IV. Bibliography

I. Introduction

1.1 General features of the work

Before doing the probe in our making work we should give some impressions on its organisation construction.

1. Subject of making work.

The subject of my making work sounds as following: & # 8220 ; Romeo and Juliet: the immortal calamity of William Shakespeare & # 8221 ; I have chosen this subject as in my sentiment it is this calamity which is the most celebrated and of the best educational value among the plants of Shakespeare.

2. Actuality of the subject.

Actual character is based on the thesis that “ Romeo and Juliet ” does non merely learn us all the best characteristics of human character but besides shows us the worst which we possess. All these, both good and evil, we still have. One more existent character is in lingual characteristics: more than 500 new English words were introduced by the Avon Bard in this calamity in their curious diverse mode.

3. The undertakings and purposes of the work.

Before the beginning of composing our making work we set the undermentioned undertakings and purposes before ourselves:

1. To look into the distinctive features of the drama and their difference from other plants of Shakespeare.

2. To analyse the moral value of the drama.

3. To demo the ways how the heroes are related to each other by happening out resistances and correspondences.

4. To analyse some popular scenes in the drama.

4. The freshness of the work.

We consider that the freshness of the work is revealed in new stuffs of the linguists which were published in the Internet. One more freshness is the analysis of modern screen versions of the drama made by celebrated managers Franco Zeffirelli and James Cameron.

5. Practical significance of the work.

In our sentiment the practical significance of our work is difficult to be overvalued. This work reflects modern tendencies in linguistics and we hope it would function as a good manual for those who wants to get the hang modern English linguistic communication by classical linguistic communication of William Shakespeare.

6. Wayss of scientific probe used within the work.

The chief method for roll uping our work is the method of comparative analysis, interlingual rendition method and the method of statistical research.

7. William claude dukenfields of elaboration.

The present work might happen a good manner of connoting in the undermentioned domains:

1. In High Schools and scientific circles of lingual sort it can be successfully used by instructors and philologues as modern stuff for composing research works covering with William Shakespeare

2. It can be used by instructors of schools, secondary schools and colleges by instructors of English as a practical manual for learning English literature.

3. It can be utile for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her cognition in English.

8. Linguists worked with the subject.

As the base for our making work we used the plants of a distinguished Russian linguists Dmitry Urnov and modern Russian philologue Ilya Gililov [ 1 ]
.

8. Content of the work.

The present making work consists of four parts: debut, the chief portion, decision and bibliography. It besides includes the appendix where some interesting Internet stuffs, tabular arraies, strategies and exemplifying thematic stuffs were gathered. Within the debut portion, which includes two points we gave the brief description of our making work ( the first point ) and gave general impression of the subject and the calamity. The chief portion of our making work includes several points. There we discussed such jobs as capable and subjects of the drama, analysis some curious scenes and dealingss of the chief characters. We besides compared the linguistic communication of calamity with the corresponding linguistic communication of Shakespearean comedies holding performed such comparing as methodic ellaboration for the lesson program. In the decision to our making work we tried to pull some consequences from the scientific probes made within the chief portion of our making work. In bibliography portion we mentioned more than 20 beginnings of which were used while roll uping the present work. It includes lingual books and articles covering with the subject, a figure of used lexicons and encyclopaedia and besides some cyberspace beginnings. Appendixs to our work include some interesting information on Shakespeare and his plants.

2.1 General features of the secret plan

This drama starts with a lovely sonnet, an unusual beginning given that sonnets were meant to be from a lover to his beloved. The sonnet is besides a really structured signifier of prose, imparting itself to order. Shakespeare cleverly contrasts this orderly sonnet with the immediate upset of the first scene. The sonnet degenerates into a clump of disputing retainers who shortly provoke a battle between the houses of Montegue and Capulet.

This scene is wrought with sexual overtones, with the assorted retainers talking of ravishing the enemies adult females. The sexual pun will go on throughout the drama, going highly off-color and at times violative, yet besides underlying the love matter between Romeo and Juliet.

The upset within the drama is evidenced by upside-down fortunes. Servants start the wrangle, but shortly pull the Lords into the bash. The immature work forces enter the battle, but shortly the old work forces try to deny their age and battle every bit good. The fact that this whole scene takes topographic point in wide daytime undermines the security that is supposed to be during the twenty-four hours. Thus the drama trades with conflicting images: retainers taking Lords, old age pretense to be youth, twenty-four hours catching dark.

The Nurse speaks of Juliet falling as a kid when she relates a narrative to Lady Capulet. This narrative indirectly pertains to the rise and autumn ofthe characters. Since this is a calamity, the influence of wheel ‘s luck can non be overlooked. Indeed, Juliet ‘s function in the drama does parallel the wheel of luck, with her rise to the balcony and her autumn to the vault.

The Nurse besides foreshadows, “ An I might populate to see thee married one time ” ( 1.3.63 ) . Naturally she does non anticipate this to be realized in so short a clip, but so she does populate to merely see Juliet married one time.

Romeo compares Juliet to, “ a rich gem in an Ethiope ‘s ear ” ( 1.5.43 ) when he foremost sees her. This drama on the comparing of dark and visible radiation shows up often in subsequent scenes. It is a cardinal portion of their love that of import love scenes take topographic point in the dark, off from the upset of the twenty-four hours. Therefore Romeo loves Juliet at dark, but kills Tybalt during the twenty-four hours. It particularly shows up in the first act in the manner Romeo shuts out the daytime while he is aching for Rosaline.

In the 5th scene the lover ‘s portion a sonnet which uses imagination of saints and pilgrims. This relates to the fact that Romeo means Pilgrim in Italian. It is besides a sacriligeous sonnet, for Juliet becomes a saint to be kissed and Romeo a holy traveller.

The prefiguration so common in all of Shakespeare ‘s dramas comes from Juliet near the terminal of the first act. She states,

Juliet: If he be married,

My grave is like to be my marrying bed [ 2 ]
.

( 1.5.132 ) .

This will be related over and over once more, from her Nurse and subsequently even from Lady Capulet.

One of the singular facets of the drama is the transmutation of both Romeo and Juliet after they fall in love. Juliet first comes across as a immature, guiltless miss who obeys her parents bids. However, by the last scene she is oblique and extremely focussed. Therefore, she asks her nurse about three separate work forces at the party, salvaging Romeo for last so as non to elicit intuition. Romeo will undergo a similar transmutation in the 2nd act, ensuing in Mercutio noticing that he has become sociable.

There is a unusual scriptural mention which comes from Benvolio in the really first scene, when he attempts to hold the battle. He comments,

Benvolio: Put up your blades.

You know non what you do ”

( 1.1.56 ) .

This is the same phrase used by Jesus when he stops his apostles from contending the Roman guards during his apprehension. It seems to predestine Juliet ‘s death, viz. her three twenty-four hours “ decease ” followed by a Resurrection which still finally ends in decease.

The interaction and struggle of dark and twenty-four hours is raised to new degrees within the 2nd act. Benvolio in mention to Romeo ‘s passion. provinces that:

Benvolio: Blind is his love,

and best befits the dark ”

( 2.1.32 )

And when Romeo eventually sees Juliet once more, he wonders,

Benvolio: But soft, what light through yonder window interruptions?

It is the E, and Juliet is the Sun.

Arise, just Sun, and kill the covetous Moon ”

( 2.1.44-46 ) .

Romeo so invokes the darkness as a signifier of protection from injury,

Romeo: I have dark ‘s cloak to conceal me from their eyes ” ( 2.1.117 ) .

This struggle will non stop until the upset of the twenty-four hours finally overcomes the passionate darks and destroys the lives of both lovers. It is worthwhile to observe the difference between Juliet and Rosaline. Juliet is compared to the Sun, and is one of the most giving characters in the drama.

Juliet: My premium is every bit unbounded as the sea,

My love as deep. The more I give thee

The more I have, for both are infinite ”

( 2.1.175-177 ) .

Rosaline, by contrast, is said to be maintaining all her beauty to herself, to decease with her. This comparing is made even more apparent when Romeo describes Rosaline as a Diana ( the goddess of the Moon ) and says to Juliet,

Romeo: Arise, just Sun, and kill the covetous Moon ” ( 2.1.46 ) .

The balcony scene is more than a great lovers ‘ meeting topographic point. It is in fact the same as if Romeo had entered into a private Eden. He has climbed over a big wall to come in the garden, which can be viewed as a sanctuary of virginity. Therefore he has invaded the lone topographic point which Juliet deems private, seeing as her room is invariably watched by the Nurse or her female parent. One of the interesting things which Shakespeare often has his characters do is swear to themselves. For case, when Romeo tries to curse by the Moon, Juliet comments that the Moon waxes and ebbs, and is excessively variable. Alternatively, she says,

Juliet: Or if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious ego ( 2.1.155 ) .

Shakespeare frequently has characters encouraged to be true to themselves foremost, as a mark that merely so can they be true to others..

Again, note the alteration in Juliet ‘s behaviour. Whereas she used to obey the authorization of her nurse, she now disappears twice, and twice defies authorization and reappears. This is a certain mark of her emerging independency, and is a important factor in understanding her determination to get married Romeo and withstand her parents.

There is a strong struggle between the utilizations of Ag and gold throughout the action.

Juliet: How silver-sweet sound lovers ‘ linguas by dark ” ( 2.1.210 )

& # 8230 ; ” Lady, by yonder blessed Moon I vow,

That tips with Ag all these fruit-tree tops ”

( 2.1.149-50 ) .

Silver is frequently invoked as a symbol of love and beauty. Gold, on the other manus, is frequently used ironically and as a mark of greed or desire. Rosaline is therefore described as being immune to showers of gold, which about seem to be a payoff. When Romeo is banished, he remarks that ostracism is a “ aureate axe, ” intending that decease would hold been better and that ostracism is simply a euphemism for the same thing. And eventually, the hard-on of the statues of gold at the terminal is even more a mark of the fact that neither Capulet nor Montegue has truly learned anything from the loss of their kids. One of the cardinal issues is the difference between young person and old age. Friar Laurence acts as Romeo ‘s intimate, and the Nurse advises for Juliet. However, both have advice that seems queerly out of topographic point given the fortunes of the drama. For case, Friar Laurence says to Romeo, “ Wisely and decelerate. They stumble that run fast ” ( 2.2.94 ) . He besides advises Romeo to “ Therefore love reasonably ” ( 2.5.9 ) . The insanity of this supplication to love “ reasonably ” is made ( 5.1.6 ) . The usage of dreams is meant to bode, but besides heightens the dramatic elements of the calamity by irrevocably sealing the character ‘s destiny.

When Romeo goes to the Apothecary to purchase his toxicant, it is as if he were purchasing the toxicant from Death himself. Note the description of the Apothecary,

Romeo: Meagre were his expressions.

Crisp wretchedness had worn him to the castanetss

( 5.1.40-1 ) .

He is clearly an image of Death. Romeo pays him in gold, stating, “ There is thy gold – worse toxicant to work forces ‘s psyches ” ( 5.1.79 ) . This description of gold ties into the struggle between gold and Ag. It is gilded that underlies the household feuding, even after the decease of both Romeo and Juliet when Capulet and Montegue attempt to outbid each other in the size of their aureate statues. Therefore for Romeo gold truly is a signifier of toxicant, since it has helped to kill him.

The analysis of the first act pointed out some of the numberous sexual mentions throughout the drama. In the concluding decease scene there is even the full force of the titillating component. Romeo drinks from a chalise, a cup with a form that is frequently compared to the trunk of a adult female. Meanwhile Juliet says,

Juliet: O happy sticker,

This is thy sheath!

There rust, and allow me decease ” ( 5.3.169 ) .

The sticker is of class Romeo ‘s, and the sexual overtones are starkly clear. In add-on to this, there is ambiguity about the usage of the word “ dice. ” To decease really had two significances when Shakespeare was composing, intending either existent decease or sexual intercourse. Thus, even at the very terminal of the drama, we can non be certain from the words entirely whether Juliet is perpetrating suicide or prosecuting in sexual dealingss with Romeo.

A concluding remark concerns Friar Laurence. His actions at the terminal of the drama are singular for a holy adult male because he attempts to play God. Friar Laurence gets Juliet to imbibe a potion which puts her to kip, forging decease, and so he tries to raise her. In his effort to play God, Friar Laurence is condemned to neglect by the simple haughtiness of his act. This tie-in with the decease of Christ would non hold escaped the Christian audiences watching the drama.

II. The Main Part

1.2 Critical overview on the drama

The cardinal brace of lovers are the lone characters in “ Romeo and Juliet ” featured as changing, against all the others who are inactive. The critical sentiment on Romeo and Juliet is practically consentaneous. The inseparability of their names reflects the really nature of love: people seeking “ their other halves ” , completeness in a brotherhood with the other. So all the critics agree that Romeo and Juliet are the ideal brace of lovers. The tradition of psychological analysis of Shakespeare ‘s characters was founded by S.T.Coleridge in his Shakespearian talks ( 1811-1812 ) [ 3 ]
. In the 7th talk he described Shakespeare ‘s alone apprehension of love: “ Shakespeare has described this passion in assorted provinces and phases, get downing, as was most natural, with love in the immature. Does he open his drama doing Romeo and Juliet in love at first sight & # 8212 ; at the first glance, as any ordinary mind would make? Surely non: he knew what he was approximately: he was to develop the whole passion, and he commences with the first elements – that sense of imperfectness, that hankering to unite itself with something lovely. Romeo became enamoured of the thought he had formed in his ain head, and so, as it were, christened the first existent being of the contrary sex as endowed with the flawlessnesss he desired. He appears to be in love with Rosaline ; but, in truth, he is in love merely with his ain thought. He felt that necessity of being beloved which no baronial head can be without. Then our poet, our poet who so good cognize human nature, introduces Romeo to Juliet, and makes it non merely a violent, but a lasting love. Romeo is foremost represented in a province most susceptible of love, and so, seeing Juliet, he took and retained the infection. ” The typical Continental point of position is represented by the words of the most influential Russian critic of the XlXth century V.G.Belinsky. In 15th installment of his “ Alexander Pushkin ‘s Works ” ( 1844 ) he wrote: “ The thought of love makes the poignancy of “ Romeo and Juliet ” , and the lovers ‘ enthusiastic duologues are like ocean moving ridges reflecting in the stars ‘ bright visible radiation. Their lyrical soliloquies are full non merely of common esteem, but of the proud averment of Love ‘s godly nature [ 4 ]
“ . Dmitrii Urnov considers “ Romeo and Juliet & # 8221 ; ‘s topographic point among Shakespeare ‘s early dramas, because it farcical by the rapid events which follow. In fact, by the terminal of the drama we even see Friar Laurence rejecting his ain advice and faltering to make Juliet ‘s grave before Romeo can happen her. “ How oft tonight have my old pess stumbled at Gravess? ” ( 5.3.123 ) .

Mercutio leads the action in this most dramatic of the five Acts of the Apostless. When wounded, he cries out “ A pestilence O ‘ both your houses ” ( 3.1.101 ) , stating it three times to guarantee that it becomes a expletive. Indeed, it is the pestilence which causes the concluding decease of both Romeo and Juliet. Friar John says that he was unable to present the missive to Romeo because, “ the seekers of the town, / Suspecting that we both were in a house / Where the infective plague did reign, / Sealed up the doors, and would non allow us forth ” ( 5.2.8-11 ) .

One of the most beautiful monologue is that of Juliet when she beckons for twilight, once more stand foring the contrast to the upset of the twenty-four hours ‘s events.

Juliet: Come, soft dark ; come, loving, black-browed dark,

Give me my Romeo, and when he shall decease

Take him and cut him out in small stars,

And he will do the face of Edens so all right

That all the universe will be in love with dark

And pay no worship to the brassy Sun ”

( 3.2.20-25 ) .

The Nurse ‘s reaching in this act with information about Romeo and Tybalt reinforces the fact that this is now a calamity, non a comedy. This can be seen in the contrast of this scene with the first scene where the Nurse withholds information from Juliet. In the first scene, the Nurse is playfully oblique in stating Juliet about where Romeo wants to run into her for their matrimony. Now nevertheless, the same gaiety is no longer amusing, instead it is exasperating. In this sense Shakespeare turns the Nurse from a amusing character into a tragic character, one who can non recognize the importance of what she is stating.

Juliet ‘s dedication to Romeo emerges really strongly at this point. At first she derides Romeo for killing Tybalt, but she shortly has a alteration of bosom and says, “ Shall I speak ailments of him that is my hubby? ” ( 3.2.97 ) . She so states that she would give ten thousand Tybalts to be with Romeo, and subsequently includes her parents in the list of people she would instead lose than Romeo. This dedication to a hubby or lover is something which emerges often in Shakespeare, and is a point he tries to stress.

Romeo ‘s wretchedness at being banished is clearly shown in his penchant for decease.

Romeo: Then ‘banished ‘

Is decease mistermed. Naming decease ‘banished ‘

Thou cutt’st my caput off with a aureate axe ”

( 3.3.20-22 ) .

Friar Laurence tries to demo him that by being alive he at least still has a opportunity to see Juliet once more. Even the Nurse, come ining where Romeo is concealing, says, “ Stand up, stand up, stand an you be a adult male ” ( 3.3.88 ) .

The analysis of the first act introduced the image of the wheel of luck. This was applied to Juliet, who throughout the old Acts of the Apostless rose from a low girl to go a strong adult female standing on a balcony, and wholly in charge of her state of affairs. However, at this occasion the Nurse informs Romeo that Juliet “ down falls once more ” ( 3.3.101 ) as a consequence of his ostracism and her loss of Tybalt. Later, Juliet takes this image even further, stating, “ Methinks I see thee, now thou art so low / As one dead in the underside of a grave ” ( 3.5.55-6 ) .

This of class besides is integrated with the prefiguration so common in Shakespeare ‘s dramas. Lady Capulet remarks about Juliet ‘s refusal to get married Paris that, “ I would the sap were married to her grave ” ( 3.5.140 ) . This phrase will of class come true rather shortly, when Juliet dies while still married to Romeo.

The struggle between the older coevals and the younger comes to head in the concluding scene of act three. The Nurse advocates that Juliet bury about Romeo and alternatively concentrate on Paris, the virtuousnesss of whom she proceeds to laud. Juliet, poisoningly sweet in her irony, sends the Nurse off from her for the first clip, remarking, “ Ancient damnation! ” ( 3.5.235 ) , both a mention to the Nurse ‘s age and to the jobs she must cover with. This leaves Juliet wholly entirely to confront the hostile universe Much in the manner that the characaters in Richard VI dream about their destinies in the concluding act of that drama, Romeo excessively has a dream which tells of his destiny. “ I dreamt my lady came and found me dead ” does non show “ the fundamentally tragic position of life, as the later dramas would ; it expresses the calamity of single fate under tragic fortunes ” .

Many tragic love narratives have been compared to “ Romeo and Juliet ” ; the most successful modern versions are non in books, but in movie. The most popular are: The classical American musical film “ West Side Story ” ( 1961 ) based on the drama by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein, wordss by Stephen Sondheim. The action takes topographic point against the background of New York packs war and is purely parallel to Shakespeare ‘s secret plan. The Jets, white male childs ‘ pack, rival the Sharks, Puerto-Rican pack, merely as the Montague rival the Capulet ; prince Escalus and his guards find opposite number in constabulary officers Krupke and Schrank ; Friar Laurence – in Doc ; etc. The Polack Tony and the Puerto-Rican Maria follow in the stairss of Romeo and Juliet, the major change of the secret plan happening in the concluding scene. Tony is shot by Maria ‘s suer Chino, and the drape falls with Maria and Chino alive. “ West Side Story ” reads like a societal papers and the Hollywood musical was celebrated for its haunting music and dynamic dance ( choreographed by Jerome Robbins ) . In contrast, “ Romeo and Juliet ” ( 1968 ) , directed by Franco Zeffirelli, offers a really careful, historically accurate scene: Leonard Whiting and Olivia Hussey starring as Romeo and Juliet were severally 17 and 14, which are precisely the characters ‘ ages in Shakespeare. “ Romeo+Juliet ” ( 1996 ) , directed by Baz Luhrmann, starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes, is the most unconventional version of star-crossed lovers ‘ narrative. It is set in futuristic urban background of Verona Beach, and the dazing contrast between classical lines and ocular image of modern street force makes this controversial film worth particular attending. The most recent fascinating version is “ Shakespeare in Love ” ( 1998 ) , awarded by the Academy as the best movie of the twelvemonth ( directed by John Madden ) , starring Joseph Fiennes and Gwyneth Paltrow. The screenplay was written by Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard. The movie combines the narrative of

Shakespeare composing and directing “ Romeo and Juliet ” in 1593, and “ Romeo and Juliet ” as it might be performed by its first dramatis personae, therefore the show of Elizabethan England incorporates the show of “ Romeo and Juliet ” . It uses the rule of “ show within the show ” . The film makes a beautiful illustration of modern film, and the Academy Award must be regarded as the verification of Shakespeare ‘s victory through ages.

In Verona, Sampson and Gregory ( Capulet retainers ) complain that they will non set up with abuses from the Montague household. Abram and Balthasar ( Montague retainers ) appear and the four start disputing. Benvolio ( Lord Montague ‘s nephew ) appears and attempts to interrupt up the wrangle, but Tybalt ( Lady Capulet ‘s nephew ) appears and picks a battle with Benvolio. At length, officers try to interrupt up the battle, even while Lord Capulet and Lord Montague get down to contend one another. The Prince of Verona ( Escalus ) appears and stops the combat, proclaiming sentences of decease to any that renew the combat. At Montague ‘s house, he, his married woman, and Benvolio discourse how melancholic Romeo ( Montague ‘s lone boy ) has been recently. Benvolio vows to happen out why. Talking with Romeo, Benvolio finds Romeo is in love with a adult female who has sworn to remain chaste ( Rosaline ) . Benvolio suggests prosecuting other adult females, but Romeo refuses. Individually, Paris ( a kinsman of the Prince of Verona ) negotiations to Lord Capulet about courting his girl Juliet for matrimony. Capulet responds that she is excessively immature ( about 14 old ages old ) and must wait two old ages to get married, and so merely to the adult male whom she chooses. Still, Capulet invites Paris to a party in the eventide. Capulet ‘s retainer is sent to ask for invitees, but he ca n’t read the list so he entreats Romeo to make so. Upon hearing of the party, Benvolio convinces Romeo to go to and compare his unachievable love Rosaline to more beautiful adult females to acquire his head off Rosaline. At Capulet ‘s house, Lady Capulet speaks to Juliet about her feelings for get marrieding Paris while Juliet ‘s Nurse listens on, stating narratives of Juliet ‘s childhood. Juliet, although hesitant, promises to be gracious. Masked, Romeo, Mercutio, and Benvolio caput to the Capulet cake. Romeo is still depressed, stating he dreamt a fearful dream of an ill-timed decease that will ensue because of the eventide ‘s events, but Benvolio merely makes merriment of him. At Capulet ‘s house, the Montagues attend the party ( in masks ) , Romeo spies Juliet, and he falls in love with her. Tybalt sees Romeo and takes up weaponries, but Lord Capulet efforts to quiet him, though Tybalt vows to avenge Romeo ‘s invasion the following twenty-four hours. Juliet, excessively, falls for Romeo, but falls into desperation when her Nurse informs her Romeo is a Montague, as does Romeo when he learns Juliet is a Capulet.

While go forthing the party, Romeo hides in the grove while Mercutio and Benvolio call for him to come out of concealment and travel place with them ; yet he will non. After they leave, Romeo appears and speaks to Juliet under her window, stating “ But soft! What light through yonder window interruptions? It is the East, and Juliet is the Sun! ” By and by they swear their love to one another. Juliet tells Romeo she ‘ll direct a courier to him the following twenty-four hours to larn the inside informations of their nuptials. Having stayed up all dark, Romeo visits Friar Lawrence ‘s cell and tells him of this new love for Juliet. Although Lawrence is critical at first, Romeo finally convinces him to get married them. In the street, Benvolio tells Mercutio that Romeo did non come place that dark, and that Tybalt has sent the Montagues a missive disputing Romeo to a affaire d’honneur. Romeo appears and they tease him for concealing from them. Juliet ‘s nurse and servant Peter appear and Romeo tells her to state Juliet to travel to the Friar ‘s cell that afternoon to be married. The Nurse returns to Juliet and, though she skirts around the message, she eventually tells Juliet the fantastic intelligence. Soon, at the Friar ‘s cell, he marries Romeo and Juliet, and Romeo plans to see Juliet ‘s sleeping room that flushing.

At the street, Benvolio and Mercutio brush Tybalt and Petruchio, taking to Tybalt and Mercutio contending since Tybalt attempts to pick a battle with Romeo, but he refuses. Romeo tries to interrupt up the battle, but Tybalt slays Mercutio under Romeo ‘s arm, so Tybalt flees. As Mercutio dies, he declares “ A pestilence on both your houses, ” since he is merely a friend of Romeo ‘s and non his kinsmen. When Benvolio informs Romeo that Mercutio is dead, Romeo seeks out, battles, and slays Tybalt in retaliation. Benvolio convinces Romeo to fly. The prince appears and Benvolio explains all to him, at which the Prince expatriates Romeo for murdering Tybalt. At the Capulet ‘s grove, Juliet waits for Romeo when her Nurse appears and informs her of Mercutio and Tybalt ‘s deceases, and Romeo ‘s ostracism. Juliet falls into desperation, recognizing she would instead Tybalt dead than Romeo, but besides that a banished Romeo is virtually dead. At the Friar ‘s cell, he informs Romeo of the Prince ‘s edict of ostracism, seting him into desperation. Romeo provinces he would instead be dead than banished. The Nurse arrives and Tells Romeo that Juliet is sad excessively, but forgives Romeo. Still, Romeo pulls a sticker and attempts to kill himself, but the Friar stops him and tells him to remain the dark with Juliet, so flee to Mantua. At Capulet ‘s house, he and Paris set the nuptials day of the month for Paris and Juliet to be three yearss therefore. In Juliet ‘s sleeping room, Romeo says a tearful adieu to Juliet. After he leaves, Lady Capulet appears and, while discoursing Tybalt ‘s decease, states she will direct a confederate to mantua to kill Romeo ( though she ne’er does ) . She so informs Juliet of her at hand matrimony to Paris. Juliet tells her parents she will non get married, but Lord Capulet commands it will be so. The Nurse, excessively, Tells Juliet she should get married Paris. In private, Juliet decides to no longer swear the nurse and vows to kill herself if the Friar can non happen a manner to salvage her from get marrieding Paris.

At Friar Lawrence ‘s cell, Paris informs the Friar of his upcoming nuptials to Juliet. When Juliet arrives to see the Friar, Paris courteously leaves. The Friar, hearing Juliet threaten self-destruction, tells her of a “ distilled spirits ” she can take to forge decease. He explains the drug will maintain her asleep and apparently dead for 42 hours, during which she can be placed in the Capulet grave. Then, when she wakes, Romeo can be at that place waiting for her to take her to Mantua. Friar Lawrence send Friar John to Mantua with an explanatory missive for Romeo. Juliet returns to her male parent and apologizes for declining to get married, doing her pa to travel the nuptials up to the following forenoon ( two yearss early ) . In her sleeping room, Juliet sends her female parent and nurse off, so, after much badgering over the hereafter, she drinks the phial of medical specialty and slumbers. Subsequently in the early forenoon, all feverishly prepare for the nuptials and Capulet sends the Nurse to wake Juliet. The Nurse wails upon happening Juliet “ dead ” , citing the others to happen her and mourn. The Friar instructs all to fix Juliet for her funeral.

In Mantua, Romeo ‘s servant Balthasar arrives and Tells Romeo that Juliet is dead. Romeo vows to see Juliet in her grave and toxicant himself at that place, purchasing the toxicant from a hapless Apothecary who illicitly sells it to Romeo merely because he ( the Apothecary ) needs the money. At Lawrence ‘s cell, Friar John studies he could non present the missive to Romeo since he ( John ) got stuck in a isolated house while seeking for Romeo. Friar Lawrence caputs to the graveyard with a wrecking bar. At the grave, Paris and his page arrive and Paris mourns Juliet ‘s decease. Paris hides when he hears Romeo and Balthasar attack. Romeo orders Balthasar to go forth him entirely, no affair what he hears. When Romeo opens the grave, Paris steps out and attempts to halt him by arousing him to contend. Romeo entreats Paris to merely walk off and non fight, but Paris forces Romeo to contend him, ensuing in Romeo murdering Paris. In sorrow, Romeo lays Paris in the grave, while Paris ‘ page in secret leaves to name the ticker. Romeo finds Juliet and mourns her decease, so drinks his toxicant and dies. Outside the grave, Friar Lawrence arrives and meets Balthasar who tells the Friar that Romeo has been in the grave for one half hr. Lawrence enters the grave and finds Romeo and Paris dead. Juliet so awakes and musca volitanss Romeo. The Friar, upon hearing noises outside flees, go forthing Juliet with Romeo. Juliet tries to kill herself with Romeo ‘s toxicant, but can happen none, either in the phial or on Romeo ‘s lips. In despair, she stabs herself with Romeo ‘s sticker. The ticker arrives, holding found Balthasar and the Friar. The Prince and Lord and Lady Capulet arrive and learn Paris, Romeo, and Juliet are dead ( surprisingly to them, Juliet seems to hold been alive, and so freshly dead once more ) . Lord Montague arrives and studies that his married woman has died from heartache over Romeo ‘s expatriate, so learns himself of Romeo ‘s decease. Capulet and Montague make peace and curse to ne’er contend once more. They vow to construct solid gold statues of Romeo and Juliet and put them side by side so all can retrieve their predicament.

Between calamity and comedy the passage is frequently but somewhat marked. Thus Romeo and Juliet differs but small from most of Shakespeare ‘s comedies in its ingredients and treatment-it is merely the way of the whole that gives it the cast of calamity. Romeo and Juliet is a image of love and its pathetic destiny in a universe whose ambiance is excessively crisp for this, the tenderest flower of human life. Two existences created for each other feel common love at the first glimpse ; every consideration disappears before the irresistable impulse to populate for one another ; under fortunes hostile in the highest grade to their brotherhood, they unite themselves by a secret matrimony, trusting merely on the protection of an unseeable power. Indecent incidents following in rapid sequence, their epic stability is within a few yearss put to the cogent evidence, boulder clay, forcibly separated from each other, by a voluntary decease they are united in the grave to run into once more in another universe.

All this is to be found in the beautiful narrative which was told long before Shakespeare ‘s twenty-four hours, and which, nevertheless merely told, will ever excite a stamp understanding ; but it was reserved for Shakespeare to fall in in one ideal image pureness of bosom with heat of imaginativeness ; sugariness and self-respect of manners with passionate strength of experiencing. Under his handling, it has become a glorious vocal of congratulations on that unexpressible feeling which ennobles the psyche and gives to it its highest sublimity, and which elevates even the senses into psyche, while at the same clip it is a melancholic lament on its inherent and imparted infirmity ; it is at one time the ideal and the obsequies of love. It appears here a heavenly flicker that, as it descends to earth, is converted into the lightning flash, which about in the same minute sets on fire and consumes the mortal being on whom it lights. All that is most intoxicant in the olfactory property of a southern spring, all that is pine awaying in the vocal of the Luscinia megarhynchos or juicy in the first gap of the rose, all likewise breathe Forth from this verse form. But even more quickly than the earliest flowers of young person and beauty decay does it, from the first shyly bold declaration and modest return of love, haste on to limitless passion, to an irrevokable brotherhood ; and so rush, amid jumping storms of ecstasy and desperation, to the destiny of the two lovers, who yet appear enviable in their difficult batch, for their love survives them, and by their decease they have obtained an eternal victory over every dividing power. The sweetest and the bitterest love and hatred, gay rejoicings and dark premonitions, stamp embracings and sepulchral horrors, the comprehensiveness of life and suicide, are here wholly brought close to each other ; and yet these contrasts are so blended into a integrity of feeling, that the reverberation which the whole leaves in the head resembles a individual but eternal suspiration. The first scenes of about every drama of Shakespeare are singular for the accomplishment with which they prepare the head for all the after scenes. We do non see the sequence of scenes ; the calamity unrevealed ; but we look into a dim and distant chance, and by what is in the foreground we can organize a general impression of the landscape that will be presented to us, as the clouds axial rotation off and the Sun lights up its wild mountains or its fertile vales. When Sampson and Gregory enter “ armed with blades and shields ” -when we hear “ a Canis familiaris of the house of Montague moves me ” ~ we know that these are non common retainers, and unrecorded non in common times ; with them the exhilaration of party spirit does non lift into strong passion & # 8212 ; it presents its farcical side. They quarrel like angry mongrels, who snarl, yet are afraid to seize with teeth. But the “ ferocious Tybalt ” in a minute shows us that these headlong wrangles can non hold peaceable terminations. The strong arm of authorization suspends the altercation, but the spirit of hostility is non put down. The motion of this scene is every bit rapid as the wrangle itself. Tt produces the consequence upon the head of something which startles ; but the composure instantly succeeds. Benvolio ‘s speech- & # 173 ; Madam, an hr before the worshipp ‘d sun

Peer ‘d forth the aureate window of the E…

-at one time shows us that we are come ining the part of high poesy. Coleridge comments that the wining address of old Montague exhibits the poetical facet of the drama even more strikingly:

Many a forenoon hath he here been seen,

With cryings augmenting the fresh forenoon ‘s dew.

It is singular that the address therefore commencing, which contains 20 lines as extremely shaped as anything in Shakespeare, is non in the first transcript of this drama. The experience of the creative person taught him where to put on the poetical colouring brighter and brighter. How attractively these lines prepare us for the visual aspect of Romeo & # 8212 ; the now contemplation, abstracted Romeo & # 8212 ; the Romeo, who, like the lover of Chaucer, Solitary was of all time entirely,

And walking all the dark, doing groan.

The love of Romeo was unrequited love. It was a sentiment instead than a passion & # 8212 ; a love that solaced itself in antithetical amour propres upon its ain wretchedness, and would pull solace from melancholic associations. It was love without the “ true Promethean fire, ” but it was a fir readying for what was to follow. The duologue between Capulet and Paris prepares us for Juliet-the “ hopeful lady of his Earth, ” who Hath non seen the alteration of 14 old ages.

The old adult male does non believe her “ ripe to be a bride ; ” but we are instantly reminded of the precociousness of nature under a southern Sun, by another charming touch of poesy, which tells us of young person and freshness-of summer in “ Aprir’-of “ fresh female buds ” take a breathing the aroma of opening flowers. Juliet at length comes. We see the submissive and soft miss ; but the garrulousness of the nurse carries us back even to the Prettiest baby that e’er I nursed.

Neither Juliet nor Romeo had justly read their ain Black Marias. He was suspiring for a shadow-she fancied that she could subject her feelings to the will of others: But no more deep will I endart mine oculus, Than your consent gives strength to do it wing.

The readying for their first interview goes frontward ; Benvolio has persuaded Romeo to travel to the Capulet ‘s banquet. There is a little intermission in the action, but how gracefully it is filled up! Mercutio comes upon the scene, and is placed by the side of Romeo, to contrast with him, but besides to harmonise. The poesy of Mercutio is that of illusion ; the poesy of Romeo is that of imaginativeness. The humor of Mercutio is the flood of carnal liquors, on occasion polluted, like a spring pure from the well-head, by the dirt over which it passes ; the humor of Romeo is slightly unreal, and barely self-sustained — it is the unaccustomed drama of the mind when the passions “ have come to the clenching point, ” but it is under control, it has no exuberance which, like the humor of Mercutio, admits the colouring of the animal and the sarcastic. The really first words of Romeo show the alteration that has come o’er him. He went into that “ hall of Capulet ‘s house ” fearing Some effect yet hanging in the stars.

He had “ a psyche of lead ” — he would be “ a candle-holder and expression on. ” But he has seen Juliet ; and with what gorgeous images has that sight filled his imaginativeness!

Oh, she doth teach the torches to fire bright! Her beauty bents upon the cheek of dark As a rich gem in an Ethiop ‘s ear.

We have now the poesy of passion spliting upon us in its violet visible radiation. The lovers show the strength of their forsaking to an overmastering will. “ They see merely themselves in the existence. ” That is the true lesson of their destiny. But, even under the direst catastrophe, they catch at the one joy which is left & # 8212 ; the short meeting before the farewell. And what a separating it is! Here once more comes the victory of the beautiful over the simply tragic. They are one time more unagitated. There love once more breathes of all the sweet sights and sounds in a universe of beauty. They are separating, but the about happy Juliet says:

It is non yet near day-Believe me, love, it was the Luscinia megarhynchos.

Romeo, who sees the danger of hold, is non deceived: It was the lark, the trumpeter of the forenoon.

Then what a explosion of poesy follows! —

Night ‘s tapers are burnt out, and jocund twenty-four hours

Bases tiptoe on the misty mountains ‘ tops.

Note the keen show of feminine tenderness in Juliet, which hurries from the forgetfulness of joy in her hubby ‘s presence to apprehensiveness for his safety. After this scene we are about content to believe, as Romeo fancied he thought:

Come what sorrow can,

It can non offset the exchange of joy.

The sorrow does come upon hapless Juliet with redoubled force. The absolute male parent, the unyielding female parent, the unreliable nurse & # 8212 ; all travel rapidlying her into a loathed matrimony & # 8212 ; might drive one less resolved to the brink of lunacy. But from this minute her love has become gallantry. She sees

No commiseration sitting in the clouds — She rejects her nurse & # 8212 ; she resolves to lead on her parents. This scene brings out her character in its strongest and most beautiful alleviation.

The concluding calamity comes. They have paid the punishment of the ferocious hates that were engendered around them, and of their ain abruptness ; but their bad lucks and their loves have healed the hostilities of which they were the victims.

Montagues and Capulets

At the really beginning of Romeo and Juliet, the Chorus chants that the blood feud between the Montagues and Capulets has been traveling on for a long clip.

The audience ne’er learns the beginning of the wrangle, but surely the “ ancient score ” has late grown stronger. Harmonizing to the Prince, brawls that “ have thrice disturb ‘d the lull of our streets ” ( 1.1.91 ) .

Audiences may inquire why the Montagues and Capulets ca n’t travel frontward and forgive. Blood is sloping in the streets and their kids wind up in an atrocious state of affairs. What ‘s the affair with these people? Are they awfully uncaring [ 5 ]
?

The audience learns that these are respectable people & # 8212 ; “ two families, both likewise in self-respect, ” ( Prologue. 1 ) from the beginning of the drama. The Montagues and the Capulets are venerable households of Verona, and as such they command regard. Even Prince Escalus shows them respect though their longstanding hostility cholers him. The indulgent sentence of Romeo ‘s ostracism ( instead than the penalty of decease ) demonstrates the Prince ‘s willingness to cut the households a interruption. He would non likely extend the same courtesy to a household of lesser stature

But the regard commanded by a baronial household does non give really much penetration into the nature of these parents and their relationships with their kids. Shakespeare leaves those hints in the text.

In merely two scenes in the full drama are all four parents are present. The first is the street fight affecting Benvolio, a Montague, and Tybalt, a Capulet. The senior coevals arrives when the conflict is already afoot. Old Montague and Capulet instantly want to come in the disturbance, peculiarly when each sees the other ready to contend.

This brief exchange among the four parents provides a batch of penetration into the moral force of the relationships. First, Capulet demands his arm. Why does he desire it? Not because he has any thought what started the battle or because he wishes to help his nephew, Tybalt, but because Old Montague is pulling his ain arm. Capulet is angered because Montague is non afraid of him. Capulet ‘s response is terribly immature.

And Montague appears no better. He instantly renews the old, unexplained wrangle. He calls Capulet a “ scoundrel, ” though Capulet has non yet done anything nefarious. Montague besides insists that he non be held back from holding his manner with Capulet.

Imagine the folly of this scene. Two old work forces in nighties are flourishing arms at one another and name-calling piece blood is being spilled around them. Is this baronial? Merely their married womans demonstrate restraint and forestall them from contending. Look how each adult female addresses her hubby. Though both adult females are stating the same thing — ” Calm down. You ca n’t contend. ” & # 8212 ; each uses a really different tone.

Lady Capulet is acrimonious and sarcastic. One word, in peculiar, underscores her cynicism. Lady Capulet tells her hubby, “ Who are you pull the leg ofing. You are manner excessively old to contend. You need a crutch, non a blade. ”

Lady Montague, excessively, seems to hold a pretty tight reign on her husband. She says, “ Though shalt non stir one pes to seek a enemy ” ( 1.1.80 ) . She might every bit good pull a line in the soil with her pes and state “ Do n’t you make bold traverse this line looking for a battle, brother. If you do, you deal with me. ” Though the adult females do n’t talk to one another or acquire involved in the combat, it seems clear that each is tired of the state of affairs.

Lady Montague, excessively, seems to hold a pretty tight reign on her husband. She says, “ Though shall non stir one pes to seek a enemy ” ( 1.1.80 ) . She might every bit good pull a line in the soil with her pes and state “ Do n’t you make bold traverse this line looking for a battle, brother. If you do, you deal with me. ”

Though the adult females do n’t talk to one another or acquire involved in the combat, it seems clear that each is tired of the state of affairs.

These are the last words Lady Montague speaks in the drama. But, some of import facets of her character have been established. She did n’t desire her hubby involved in a bash, and she is disquieted about her boy. She does n’t look like such a bad married woman and female parent.

Taking his married woman ‘s cue, Montague inquires of Benvolio the ground for Romeo ‘s distant and distant melancholy.

These parents are disquieted about their boy. They want to cognize what is up with him, and they would wish to be able to assist.

2. 2. Peculiar characteristics of important scenes ( capable and subjects )

In Act I Scene 5 Romeo and Juliet meet. Note that in malice of its rubric, this drama has really few scenes in which both lovers are present. The others are the balcony scene ( 2.2 ) , the short nuptials scene ( 2.6 ) and the gap of Act 3, Scene 5. The lovers are both on phase in Act 5, Scene 3 – but Romeo kills himself before Juliet aftermaths.

Shakespeare prepares for this scene by demoing Romeo ‘s infatuation with Rosaline ( a really strong & # 8220 ; crush & # 8221 ; on her ) . On the guest list for the party, Rosaline is described as Capulet ‘s & # 8220 ; just niece & # 8221 ; , but she ne’er appears in the drama. Benvolio ( in 1.2 ) has promised to demo Romeo a more attractive adult female, but does n’t truly hold anyone particular in head, every bit far as we know. Similarly, we know that Juliet is at that place because Capulet wants to give Paris a opportunity to run into her – this is why he throws the party [ 6 ]
.

Capulet ‘s address to Paris ( in 1.2 ) suggests that Juliet has non been out of her house much ( merely, possibly, to travel to idolize and confession at Friar Lawrence ‘s cell ) . Possibly this is why Paris ( a household friend ) has noticed her, but Romeo has no thought who she is. Immediately before this scene, Romeo has spoken of his fright that some awful & # 8220 ; effect [ consequence ] yet hanging in the stars & # 8221 ; shall get down at & # 8220 ; this dark ‘s revels & # 8221 ; ( Capulet ‘s party ) . Does this fear semen true? Tybalt ‘s behavior has besides been prepared for by the bash in the drama ‘s first scene.

In the scene, several things happen. Servants do their occupation, Capulet chats to a friend, Tybalt sees Romeo, wants to contend him and is told off by Capulet for his behavior. Romeo and Juliet meet, and each finds out who the other is. But the most of import things in the scene are:

1 the manner Romeo falls in love with Juliet at first sight

2 and the manner this contrasts with Tybalt ‘s choler and hatred.

Romeo ne’er knows that it is his presence at the party that causes Tybalt subsequently to dispute him to a affaire d’honneur. These things lead to the events of Act 3, Scene 1, where Mercutio and Tybalt dice.

The construction of the scene

In the gap the retainers speak informally ( in prose, non poetry ) , about all the work they have to make. This prepares for the expansive entryway when the Capulets come on phase, in emanation, have oning their expensive vesture and talking poetry. Romeo ‘s remarks about Juliet surrogate with Tybalt ‘s effort to assail Romeo – who does non cognize that he ‘s been noticed. At the terminal of the scene, the Nurse tells each lover who the other one is.

Within this general lineation, Shakespeare shows the most of import episode is that where Romeo and Juliet speak for the first clip. This has the signifier of a sonnet ( a rhyming 14 line verse form ) – which many in the sixteenth Century audience would notice, as they heard the form of rimes.

In Act 2 Scene 1 this scene occurs instantly after Romeo has married Juliet – which explains his friendliness to Tybalt. The general contrast of love and hatred in the drama is expressed ( really clear ) in this scene.

Another subject of the drama that is strong in this scene is the thought that we are non in control of our lives ( the Friar will state to Juliet subsequently: & # 8220 ; A greater power than we can contradict/Hath thwarted our purposes & # 8221 ; ) . Here when Romeo has killed Tybalt he cries out: & # 8220 ; I am fortune ‘s fool & # 8221 ; . What does this mean?

Yet another subject that appears is that of the feud and how guiltless lives are harmed by it. Here it is Mercutio who curses the feuding households: & # 8220 ; A pestilence on both your houses! & # 8221 ; What does this mean? Later Paris, excessively, will decease because of the feud, every bit good as the immature lovers who belong to the feuding households but have wanted non to be portion of the wrangle.

Act III Scene 5 opens with Juliet stating adieu to Romeo, who must go forth for Mantua. In the old scene the audience has heard Capulet offer Juliet ‘s manus in matrimony to Paris. We understand why he does this, but we know many things he does non cognize.

We can anticipate that Juliet will non be happy about her male parent ‘s determination. Once Romeo has gone, Lady Capulet tells Juliet she must get married. Juliet garbages, and her male parent angrily insists that she marry Paris or be turned out of the house. Entirely with the Nurse, Juliet asks for advice. She replies that Juliet should get married Paris. Juliet is astounded and pretends to hold to this advice, while make up one’s minding that the lone individual who can assist her is Friar Lawrence. Now she feels most entirely in the universe.

Modern audiences may inquire what the job is – why does Juliet non feign to travel through with the matrimony? But Shakespeare ‘s audience knows that it is a mortal wickedness to try matrimony when you are already married. If you do this, you will surely be damned ( travel to Hell ) . And there is no manner that the Friar would carry on such a matrimony ceremonial, which is one of the sacraments ( holy ceremonials or enigmas ) of the church. The Nurse must cognize this, excessively, but it seems that she does non truly believe in, or attention about, Eden and snake pit.

The key to this scene is what assorted people know:

Capulet thinks he knows what has upset his girl ( Tybalt ‘s decease ) but he is rather incorrect.

Lady Capulet knows every bit small as her hubby.

Juliet knows about her matrimony to Romeo, but can non explicate to her parents.

Juliet does n’t cognize, until they tell her, about their programs for her to get married Paris.

The Nurse, at this point, knows about Juliet ‘s secrets.

Merely the audience has the full image. In the scene Juliet repeatedly speaks equivocally – with one significance for the individual to whom she speaks, and another for herself and the audience. For illustration, the audience knows that Juliet knows that the Nurse knows that Juliet ‘s parents do n’t cognize about her matrimony to Romeo! ( Think about it. ) Subsequently we know that the Nurse does non cognize that Juliet is lead oning her. Throughout the whole scene, Shakespeare makes dramatic usage of what people do or do n’t cognize.

The construction of the scene is a really simple sequence – the one common component being Juliet, who is present throughout. After the episode where she bids farewell to Romeo ( non set for the Key Stage trial ) , Juliet learns from her female parent of the intended matrimony to Paris. When Juliet defies her female parent, Capulet argues with her. He even shouts at the Nurse, when she tries to support Juliet. Finally, Juliet asks the Nurse for aid. When the Nurse lets her down, Juliet is left entirely on phase to explicate ( to the audience ) what she is traveling to make.

3.2 & # 8220 ; Romeo and Juliet & # 8221 ; and their chief characters

Romeo

Romeo may look at first glimpse a mutable, inconsistent character. Possibly the dramatist ‘s ain thought of Romeo is non at first clear, or it may be that his young person the strange and confusing fortunes in which he finds himself explain the evident alterations in Romeo ‘s attitudes and behavior.

Though the action of the drama occurs over a period of a few yearss merely, Shakespeare gives the feeling of the transition of a longer clip, and in the class of the play Romeo appears to be aged by his experiences. So while Tybalt, in Act 3 ; scene 1, addresses Romeo as “ male child ” , in the drama ‘s concluding scene Romeo calls Paris “ good gentle young person ” .

The Romeo of the early portion of the drama is decidedly boylike but his serious, brooding and fatalistic traits mark him off from his less brooding comrades – particularly from Mercutio, who, with his blunt address, his disfavor of pretension, his misanthropic doctrine and his decrease of all love to brutal lecherousness, serves as an first-class foil for Romeo.

Romeo ‘s unanswered love for Rosaline may be grounds of his pessimistic and perverse character. It seems that Rosaline is attractive non for any easy identified flawlessnesss, so much as for the fact of her being out of range ( as a Capulet, and sworn to celibacy ) , about as if Romeo wishes to be rejected, so that he can do a show of his desperation. It is a airs that invites unfavorable judgment or even straight-out ridicule from Romeo ‘s chaps, and Romeo appears to enjoy the statement, which is provoked by these remarks, and by his defense mechanism of his infatuation.

Though Romeo exaggerates his gravitation and dejection into a airs, yet these betoken a existent fatalism of mentality, so that he views the hereafter with apprehensiveness, as when his head “ misgives… some effect, yet hanging in the stars ” . While Romeo ‘s frequent mentions to destine are frequently seen as grounds of the dramatist ‘s pulling the audience’s-attention to the workings of luck, it may non be so much destiny ( in the sense of some inauspicious force, external to the lovers ) which is at work, as Romeo ‘s belief in it. There are barbarous accidents of circumstance that befall the lovers, but in each instance these are compounded by their ain deliberate actions. There is surely a suicidal urge at work in their passion for one another.

By frequent mention to Romeo ‘s young person ( as in Capulet ‘s words to Tybalt, at the banquet ) and by Romeo ‘s ain history of Rosaline ‘s pledged celibacy Shakespeare suggests that Romeo, like Juliet, is a novitiate in affairs of the bosom, and so, like her, pure. This is supported by the fact that – ( as merely an inexperient lover would ) he seeks advice from the celibate priest, Friar Laurence, and confirmed by the nature of his first conversation with Juliet. This is in the signifier of a sonnet – a strikingly formal device in such a state of affairs – in which the etiquette of wooing is metaphorically represented as an act of spiritual devotedness ; the exchange of words here is about sacramental in quality.

Romeo is ruled by passion instead than ground: therefore, when he discovers Juliet ‘s individuality, he at one time recognises the obstruction which confronts his love, but is non at all deterred from it by considerations of prudence, practicality or danger. “ My life is my enemy ‘s debt, ” he admits, without farther bustle.

The exuberance of young person – at its most conspicuous in unrestrained, self-generated, guiltless passion – characterises Romeo ‘s conversations with Juliet after he spies her on her balcony. The lovers say small of direct importance, but the ecstatic exchange of passionate sentiment shows us how incorrect Mercutio ‘s bawdry jokes are in their dismissal of love as a mere carnal appetency demanding animal satisfaction. ( Shakespeare intimations that this is an mistake, by allowing us see another mistake in Mercutio ‘s anterior premise that Romeo is non to be found because he is still aching for Rosaline. ) Though Romeo ‘s behavior instantly after run intoing Juliet may look more boylike ( because less melancholy ) than his earlier gravitation, the existent difference is between vernal dejection ( bring forthing an overdone mannerism of big disenchantment ) and vernal ecstasy.

With the conformity of the Nurse and Friar Laurence the lovers are fleetly married. In a manner it is this that precipitates the luckless series of events, which leads to Romeo ‘s ostracism. Tybalt ‘s murder of Mercutio and Romeo ‘s realization of his portion in his friend ‘s decease call forth a new quality in Romeo, which besides springs from his consciousness of his grownup ( because married ) position. In his avenging of Mercutio ‘s decease, Romeo displays a inexorable finding and manfulness non hitherto seen, a deficiency of idea or fright for the effects of his action – he follows the suggestion of passion instead than of ground, merely as in his clandestine matrimony to Juliet he has rejected politic computation, and obeyed his bosom.

From this point Romeo ‘s actions are more and more dictated by passion, and less and less by ground. He panics, and flies to Laurence ‘s cell. Here he discovers that he is to be banished, and becomes about hysterical at the chance of separation from Juliet. Pulling a headlong decision from the first words of the Nurse ( to whom he has non decently attended ) he believes he has forfeited Juliet ‘s love in killing Tybalt, and efforts to knife himself, being prevented by the Nurse ‘s intercession and Laurence ‘s plain-speaking. The manfulness of Act 3, Scene 1 has for the minute deserted the male child, Romeo.

Like the earlier balcony-scene, the bed-chamber scene serves to demo the unrestrained, imprudent character of the vernal lovers: at any minute Lady Capulet may come in ( she should, if she had obeyed her hubby ‘s instructions, already have done so ) and Romeo ‘s life is confiscate if he be found in Verona. Yet first Juliet, so Romeo ( as their functions in the statement are switched ) pleads the instance for his detaining his going. Juliet ‘s farewell words to Romeo ( “ Methinks I see thee… As one dead in the underside of a grave ” ) are non calculated to still his frights. His fatalistic mentality and hotheaded hastiness conveying about the completion of the calamity, every spot every bit much as accidents of circumstance, or determinations made by other characters. ( These include the determination of Capulet to convey forward Juliet ‘s wedding-day from Thursday to Wednesday ; the nature of Laurence ‘s despairing strategy to forestall Juliet ‘s “ marrying ” Paris ; Friar John ‘s failure to convey Laurence ‘s message to Romeo. )

On hearing Balthasar ‘s intelligence that Juliet has died, Romeo acts with utmost hastiness, and the retainer ‘s forgotten advice ( “ I do bid you… have forbearance ” ) draws attending to this. Romeo ‘s immediate idea is of self-destruction. This might ( for a heart-broken lover ) make sense, if he were certain of his bride ‘s decease. But Romeo, surp

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Hi!
I'm Jimmy!

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