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Russian literature in the last half of the 19th century provided an artistic medium for the treatment of political and societal issues that could non be addressed straight because of authorities limitations. The authors of this period shared of import qualities: great attending to realistic, elaborate descriptions of mundane Russian life ; the lifting of the tabu on depicting the unattractive side of life ; and a satirical attitude toward modus operandis. Although changing widely in manner, capable affair, and point of view, these authors stimulated authorities administrative officials, Lords, and intellectuals to believe about of import societal issues. This period of literature, which became known as the Age of Realism, lasted from about mid-century to 1905. The literature of the Age of Realism owed a great debt to three writers and to a literary critic of the predating half-century Aleksandr Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolai Gogol, and Vissarion Belinsky. These figures set a form for linguistic communication, capable affair, and narrative techniques, which before 1830 had been really ill developed. The critic Belinsky became the frequenter saint of the extremist clerisy throughout the century.

Ivan Turgenev was successful at incorporating societal concerns with true literary art. His “ Hunter ‘s Sketches ” and “ Fathers and Sons ” portrayed Russia ‘s jobs with great pragmatism and with adequate prowess that these plants have survived as classics. Many authors of the period did non take for societal commentary, but the pragmatism of their portraitures however drew remark from extremist critics. Such authors included the novelist Ivan Goncharov, whose “ Oblomov ” is a really negative portraiture of the provincial aristocracy, and the playwright Aleksandr Ostrovsky, whose dramas uniformly condemned the middle class.

Above all the other authors stand two: Lev Tolstoy and Fedor Dostoevsky, the greatest endowments of the age. Their realistic manner transcended immediate societal issues and explored cosmopolitan issues such as morality and the nature of life itself. Although Dostoevsky was sometimes drawn into polemical sarcasm, both authors kept the chief organic structure of their work above the dominant societal and political preoccupations of the 1860s and 1870s. Tolstoy ‘s “ War and Peace & A ; quo

T ; and “ Anna Karenina ” and Dostoevsky ‘s “ Crime and Punishment ” and “ The Brothers Karamazov ” have endured as echt classics because they drew the best from the Russian realistic heritage while concentrating on wide human inquiries. Although Tolstoy continued to compose into the 20th century, he rejected his earlier manner and ne’er once more reached the degree of his greatest plant.

The literary callings of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and Turgenev had all ended by 1881. Anton Chekhov, the major literary figure in the last decennaries of the 19th century, contributed in two genres: short narratives and play. Chekhov, a realist who examined non society as a whole but the defects of persons, produced a big volume of sometimes tragic, sometimes amusing, short narratives and several outstanding dramas, including “ The Cherry Orchard ” , a dramatic chronicling of the decay of a Russian blue household.

Vocabulary

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Questions

1. What did Russian literature provide in the last half of the 19th century?

2. What did the Russian authors do to excite authorities administrative officials, Lords, and intellectuals to believe about of import societal issues?

3. What period of Russian literature is known as the Age of Realism?

4. Who did the Age of Realism owe its debt to?

5. What was Ivan Turgenev successful at?

6. What did Ivan Goncharov and Aleksandr Ostrovsky depict?

7. Why do Lev Tolstoy and Fedor Dostoevsky stand above all the other authors?

8. Who was the major literary figure in the last decennaries of the 19th century?

9. What do Anton Chekhov ‘s short narratives and dramas uncover?

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