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Shirley Jackson Essay, Research Paper

Life and Work

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Shirley Jackson was born on December 14, 1919 to Leslie and Geraldine Jackson. Her milieus were comfy

and friendly. Two old ages after Shirley was born, her household with her newborn brother moved from San Francisco to

Burlingame, California, about 30 stat mis off. & # 8220 ; Harmonizing to her female parent, Shirley began to compose verse about as

shortly as she could compose it & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 18 ) . As a kid, Shirley was interested in athleticss and literature. In 1930, a twelvemonth

before she attended Burlingame High School, Shirley began composing poesy and short narratives. Jackson enrolled in the

broad humanistic disciplines plan at the University of Rochester in 1934. But after periods of sadness and oppugning the trueness

of her friends, she withdrew from the university. For the following twelvemonth Shirley worked dark and twenty-four hours on her authorship. In

making so she established work wonts, which she maintained for the remainder of her life. After a twelvemonth of going

painstaking and disciplined author, Jackson thought she better return to college for more schooling. In 1937, she

entered Syracuse University. At first she was in the School of Journalism, but so she decided to reassign to the English

section. For the following two old ages, while at Syracuse, Shirley published, 15 pieces in campus magazines and

became fiction editor of & # 8220 ; The Syracusan & # 8221 ; , a campus wit magazine. When her place as fiction editor was

eliminated, she and fellow schoolmate Stanley Edgar Hyman began to be after a magazine of literary quality, one that the

English Club eventually agreed to patronize. ( Friedman, 21 ) In 1939, the first edition of & # 8220 ; The Spectre & # 8221 ; was published.

Although the magazine became popular, the English section didn & # 8217 ; t like the biting columns and critical essays. But

inspite of the section & # 8217 ; s changeless ticker over the magazine, Leonard Brown, a modern literature instructor, backed the

pupils and the publication. Later, Jackson was ever to mention to Brown as her wise man ; and in 1959 she dedicated her

novel & # 8220 ; The Haunting of Hill House & # 8221 ; to him. ( Oppenheimer, 45 ) But in the summer of 1940, since Jackson and Hyman

were graduating, it was announced the & # 8220 ; The Spectre & # 8221 ; had been discontinued. & # 8220 ; Apparently difficult feelings on the portion of

school governments lasted for rather some clip and may hold been one of the grounds why neither Miss Jackson, even after

going a successful writer, nor Mr. Hyman, a known critic, was named as a receiver of the Arents Pioneer Medal

for outstanding accomplishment, the highest award granted by the university. Not until the twelvemonth of her decease in

1965-twenty-five old ages later- was the decoration eventually awarded to her-in absentia, since she was unable to go to the

ceremony. & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 26 )

In 1940, after their graduation Hyman and Jackson, who had a relationship, were married. While populating in Vermont,

Jackson continued to compose. One of her earliest times in Vermont subsequently became stuff for her first book about the

household, & # 8220 ; Life Among the Savages. & # 8221 ; Between 1945 and 1947, Jackson was occupied with her first novel, & # 8220 ; The Road

Through the Wall. & # 8221 ; But it was in 1948 that her greatest success was achieved. The publication of the short narrative, & # 8220 ; The

Lottery & # 8221 ; , brought celebrity, every bit good as letters from readers all over the state. But more frequently there were opprobrious letters

from people who did non understand her motivations or what she was seeking to make. A twelvemonth subsequently a book entitled, & # 8220 ; The

Lottery & # 8221 ; , was published incorporating an mixture of short narratives including & # 8220 ; The Lottery. & # 8221 ; The critics by that clip, had

decided that Shirely Jackson was a author of much endowment and singularity. Even though Jackson was raising four

kids while her hubby went to work, she still found clip to compose. Sometimes when a narrative thought would come to

her, she would bolt off to her typewriter. Alternatively of contending authorship, as other authors do ; she found the antonym ; that

authorship was loosen uping.

In 1949, the Hymans moved to Westport, Connecticut. As usual she worked difficult. Six of her narratives were published in

assorted magazines including & # 8220 ; The New Mexico Quarterly Review & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; Collier & # 8217 ; s & # 8221 ; , and & # 8220 ; The Reader & # 8217 ; s Digest. & # 8221 ; A twelvemonth subsequently

her 2nd novel, & # 8220 ; Hangsaman & # 8221 ; was ready for publication. Critics, a & # 8220 ; Time & # 8221 ; magazine staff member and the author of & # 8220 ; The

Yale Review & # 8221 ; , regarded this book as one of the outstanding books of the twelvemonth. ( Friedman, 29 )

During the 1950s, while her kids were turning up, Jackson published at least 44 short narratives, six articles ;

two book-length household histories ; one kids & # 8217 ; s nonfiction book ; and four novels.

In 1952, besides printing eleven short narratives in assorted magazines, & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; was adapted for telecasting. A twelvemonth

subsequently & # 8220 ; Life Among the Savages & # 8221 ; was published, while & # 8220 ; The Lottery was adapted into drama signifier. The drama, which was

one-act, was the most performed drama for the following several old ages in small theatre and high school groups. ( Friedman, 31 )

Two old ages subsequently, in 1954, the publication of her novel & # 8220 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s Nest & # 8221 ; received really good reappraisals. & # 8220 ; Both

& # 8216 ; Hangsaman & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s Nest & # 8217 ; are indicants of her acute involvement in the workings of the head, and it may hold

been during this period that she herself foremost suffered minutes of anxiousness that became more intense as the old ages

progressed. & # 8221 ; ( Oppenheimer, 60 ) Probably one of Miss Jackson & # 8217 ; s more pleasant undertakings was the authorship of & # 8220 ; The

Witchcraft of Salem Village & # 8221 ; , a nonfiction Landmark book designed for the twelve-to fourteen-year-old reader,

published in 1956. She had been asked to compose the nonfiction book since her promotion after & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; indicated that

she had witchlike traits, and she jestingly proclaimed herself the lone practicing enchantress in New England. Jackson & # 8217 ; s

2nd household history, & # 8220 ; Raising Demons & # 8221 ; was published in 1957. During 1958 she wrote the kids & # 8217 ; s play & # 8220 ; The

Bad Children & # 8221 ; and a novel called & # 8220 ; The Sundial & # 8221 ; . During the summer when there were no speech production battles, Miss

Jackson enjoyed go toing the races at Saratoga ; otherwise, she remained at place where she was happiest and felt the

safest. A twelvemonth subsequently Jackson had important literary success with the publication of her noteworthy & # 8220 ; ghost narrative & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; The

Haunting of Hill House & # 8221 ; , which was dedicated to her wise man Leonard Brown. & # 8220 ; Hill House & # 8221 ; holding received first-class

reappraisals, went through several printings and was purchased by & # 8220 ; The Reader & # 8217 ; s Digest & # 8221 ; for its condensed books. Four

old ages subsequently, under the rubric & # 8220 ; The Haunting & # 8221 ; , it became a successful film. Through the old ages, Miss Jackson had gained a

great trade of weight. She had asthma and subsequently, arthritis in the terminals of her fingers. Worse yet, she had begun to endure

from onslaughts of anxiousness. & # 8220 ; Always a nervous and instead tense individual, she was now under the attention of a head-shrinker. But

even during the worst periods, she ne’er stopped working ; she used her typewriter as therapy-to write pages and pages

of anything she pleased to unburden herself of depression into which she sank & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 36 ) . In 1962, & # 8220 ; We Have

Always Lived in the Castle & # 8221 ; , a novel she started three old ages before, was finished. It shortly made the best-seller list, and

& # 8220 ; Time & # 8221 ; magazine named it one of the 10 best novels of the twelvemonth. & # 8220 ; Later, in 1965, day-to-day life was now going more

endurable for Jackson. Her anxiousnesss were vanishing and her Sessionss with the head-shrinker were tapering away. The sad

fact was that, though the head was good once more, the organic structure was non. On the afternoon of August 8, 1965, Shirley Jackson

went upstairs to take her usual sleep. However, this clip, Jackson did non awake. & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 40 ) In 1966, Jackson & # 8217 ; s

hubby, Stanley Edgar Hyman edited an anthology, & # 8220 ; The Magic of Shirley Jackson incorporating eleven short narratives and

three complete books. Jackson & # 8217 ; s last novel, & # 8220 ; Come Along With Me & # 8221 ; , which she was working on when she died, was to

be rather different from any of her other novels. Although & # 8220 ; Come Along With Me & # 8221 ; includes supernatural elements, they

are treated humorously. Since this novel was published in 1968, three old ages after Jackson passed off, Mr. Hyman

once more edited the completed subdivisions, along with several ungathered short narratives.

Primary Works

Shirley Jackson has been a really fecund writer. In all, Jackson has published, three articles, four plants of non-fiction

prose, two household books, seven novels, one drama, one work of poesy, and more than 55 short narratives. Jackson & # 8217 ; s

primary plants which are most noteworthy is the short narrative & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; ( 1948 ) , her two household books, & # 8220 ; Life Among the

Savages & # 8221 ; ( 1953 ) and & # 8220 ; Raising Demons & # 8221 ; ( 1957 ) , a non-fiction prose & # 8220 ; Witchcraft in Salem Village & # 8221 ; ( 1956 ) , and her seven

novels, & # 8220 ; Road Through the Wall & # 8221 ; ( 1948 ) , & # 8220 ; Hangsaman & # 8221 ; ( 1951 ) & # 8220 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s Nest & # 8221 ; ( 1954 ) , & # 8220 ; The Sundial & # 8221 ; ( 1958 ) , & # 8221 ; The

Haunting of Hill House & # 8221 ; ( 1959 ) , and & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in a Castle & # 8221 ; ( 1962 ) . In Jackson & # 8217 ; s first novel, & # 8220 ; The Road

through the Wall & # 8221 ; ( 1948 ) , she wrote of a clannish vicinity in suburban San Francisco and sketched its moral

prostration as a consequence of bias and slaying. This work affirmed Jackson & # 8217 ; s abhorrence of intolerance and dogmatism. Her

short narrative, & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; , besides published in 1948 was about a town & # 8217 ; s tradition of giving a human so there would be

a good crop. & # 8220 ; The Hangsaman & # 8221 ; ( 1951 ) , her 2nd novel, tells the narrative of a seventeen-year-old Natalie Waite

mercifully get awaying her male parent & # 8217 ; s subjugation by go forthing place to go to college. She does non hold the societal accomplishments to

adjust to the uninhibited environment, nevertheless, and so she invents Tony, an fanciful female friend. Tony shortly

becomes more awful than friendly, and in a climactic scene, Natalie is forced to take between world and her

fanciful friend. & # 8220 ; Life Among the Savages & # 8221 ; ( 1953 ) and & # 8220 ; Raising Demons & # 8221 ; ( 1957 ) are both about household life in a little

New England town, which is where Shirley Jackson lived with her hubby and kids until her decease last twelvemonth.

Jackson & # 8217 ; s following novel, & # 8220 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s Nest & # 8221 ; ( 1954 ) , is a psychological survey based on a true instance of multiple personality.

Jackson & # 8217 ; s supporter, Elizabeth Richmond, a somber, bland adult female who is convinced she is responsible for her

female parent & # 8217 ; s decease, invents alternate characters as a consequence of being unable to cover with guilt. With the aid of a head-shrinker

and an bizarre aunt, Elizabeth bit by bit regains control of her mind. The novel is by and large regarded as Jackson & # 8217 ; s

wittiest novel since it was lauded for its amusing yet compassionate intervention of mental upset. In 1956, Jackson & # 8217 ; s

non-fiction prose, & # 8220 ; The Witchcraft of Salem Village & # 8221 ; , was published. It & # 8217 ; s a simple, chilling history of the witchery

tests of 1692 and 93 & # 8242 ; when, because of testimony given by a group of small misss, 20 individuals were executed as

enchantresss and others died in gaol. & # 8220 ; The Sundial & # 8221 ; , published in 1958, is an revelatory and satirical novel that centers upon

eleven loutish people who believe that the terminal of the universe is near. Seeking sanctuary in a straggling Gothic estate, they

fire the books in the library, irrationally stock the shelves with transcribed olives and arctics, drama cards, and spat

infinitely. At the terminal of the novel, the group is still waiting for Armageddon. A Gothic manor once more plays a important function

in & # 8220 ; The Haunting of Hill House & # 8221 ; ( 1959 ) . This work concerns an experimental psychic survey held at Hill House, an eerie

building that is presumed to be haunted. Research participants include Eleanor Vance, a cautious, repressed adult female with

amazing psychic powers. The other people brought to Hill House are confident and egoistic and shortly estrange

Eleanor signifier the lone environment in which she was of all time comfy. Jackson & # 8217 ; s last novel, & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived

in the Castle & # 8221 ; ( 1962 ) combines many of her most critical concerns-psychology, isolation, and evil-with a wonder in black

thaumaturgy. & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in the Castle & # 8221 ; is the narrative of two sisters victimized by their little New England small town

because of the unresolved mass slaying of their household. Although neighbours believe the slaying was committed by

Bodensee, the older sister, Constance knows that her psychopathologic younger sister Merricat poisoned the household by

seting arsenous anhydride in the sugar bowl. Throughout the narrative there is much battle with the villagers and their cousin

Charles, which consequences in Merricat firing down their sign of the zodiac in order to kill Charles, but in the terminal the sisters stay

together. Here Jackson inquiries the traditional definition of normalcy, proposing that the villagers & # 8217 ; force is aberrant

behaviour, while Merrricat & # 8217 ; s actions are prompted by a psychological perturbation that should arouse understanding and

apprehension. & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in the Castle remains Jackson & # 8217 ; s most critically acclaimed novel.

Secondary Criticism

Over the old ages many critics have wrote articles on Shirley Jackson & # 8217 ; s legion work. Many critics had much to state

about Jackson & # 8217 ; s most celebrated short narrative, & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; . Her penetrations and observations about adult male and society are

disturbing ; and in the instance of & # 8220 ; The Lottery, & # 8221 ; they are flooring. & # 8220 ; The subjects themselves are non new: evil cloaked in

looking good ; bias and lip service ; loneliness and defeat ; psychological surveies of heads that have slipped the

bonds of world & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 44 ) Literary critic, Elizabeth Janeway wrote that, & # 8221 ; & # 8216 ; The Lottery & # 8217 ; makes its consequence without

holding to province a moral about humanity & # 8217 ; s need to debar the cognition of its ain decease on a victim. That uneasy

consciousness is waked in the read

Er himself by the impact of the narrative. Miss Jackson’s great gift is non to make a

universe of phantasy and panic, but instead to detect the being of the grotesque in the ordinary universe. ( Janeway, 58 )

Fritz Oehlschlaeger, a literary critic, stated that, & # 8220 ; a struggle between male authorization and female opposition is subtly apparent

throughout & # 8220 ; The Lottery. & # 8221 ; Early in the narrative, the male childs make a & # 8216 ; great heap of rocks in one corner of the square, & # 8221 ; while

the misss stand aside & # 8220 ; speaking among themselves, looking over their shoulders at the boys. & # 8221 ; ( 259 ) Critic Peter Kosenko

explains that Jackson distinguishes male and female authorization early in the narrative by demoing how the kids listen to

their male parent & # 8217 ; s orders, but non their female parent & # 8217 ; s: ( 225 ) & # 8220 ; Soon the adult females & # 8230 ; began to name their kids & # 8230 ; Bobby Martin

ducked under his female parent & # 8217 ; s hold oning manus and ran, laughing, back to the heap of rocks. His male parent spoke up aggressively, and

Bobby came rapidly and took his topographic point between his male parent and his eldest brother & # 8221 ; ( Lottery, 292 ) . Jackson gives really

field, solid-sounding names to her characters: Adams, Warner, Dunbar, Martin, Hutchinson, etc. & # 8220 ; The name Mr.

Summers is peculiarly suited for cheery, gay Joe Summers ; it emphasizes the surface tone of the piece and

underscores the ultimate sarcasm. Mr. Graves-the postmaster and the helper to Mr. Summers in the disposal of the

lottery-has a name that might good mean the tragic undertone, which does non go meaningful until the terminal of the

narrative & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 64 ) Oehlschlaeger explains his significance behind the name Hutchinson. & # 8220 ; The name of Jackson & # 8217 ; s victim

links her to Anne Hutchinson, whose Antinomian beliefs, found to be dissident by the Puritan hierarchy, resulted in her

ostracism from Massachusetts in 1638. While Tessie Hutchinson is no religious Rebel, to be certain, Jackson & # 8217 ; s allusion to

Anne Hutchinson reinforces her suggestions of a rebellion skulking within the adult females of her fanciful small town & # 8221 ; ( 261 )

Helen E. Nebeker explains that why traditions of work forces in & # 8220 ; The Lottery & # 8221 ; must be examined more closely:

& # 8220 ; Until enough work forces are touched strongly plenty by the horror of their ritualistic, irrational actions to reject the

long-perverted ritual, to destruct the box completely-or to do, if necessary, a new one reflective of their conditions and

demands of life-man will ne’er liberate himself from his crude nature and is finally doomed. Miss Jackson does non

offer us much hope-they merely talk of giving up the lottery in the north small town & # 8230 ; . ( 107 )

The 2nd work of Jackson that most literary critics remark on is her fresh & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in a Castle & # 8221 ; .

Literary critic, Granville Hicks wrote that, & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in a Castle & # 8221 ; showed Jackson at her most adept,

doing the non rather believable every bit existent as this typewriter of mine. It besides suggests, possibly a small more contritely than was

customary with Miss Jackson, some despairing truths about world & # 8221 ; ( 31 ) . & # 8220 ; Miss Jackson was surely non the first

author to asseverate that there is evil in everybody, but what might be simply a cliche becomes a great truth because of the

deepness and consistence of her ain feeling about life and because she was so inordinately successful in doing her

readers feel what she felt. She plunges the reader into a universe of her making and leaves him inquiring about what he

has ever believed to be the existent universe & # 8221 ; ( 32 ) . Geoffrey Wolff points out that & # 8220 ; the secret of her art in this novel is her

& # 8216 ; comfort & # 8217 ; in depicting & # 8216 ; those things that happen & # 8217 ; . The lunacy is so tangled with the ordinary that we can non shrug it

off or hide from it. The blazing symbols-poison, the garden, the collective will of the community, the inherited house

cleaned by fire-are non things and thoughts that stand for something other than themselves. Rather they are the life of the

novel. In Freud & # 8217 ; s vocabulary, the dream, or incubus, is an fable of concealed motivations. In Miss Jackson & # 8217 ; s novel, the

incubus lives on the surface, so terrorizing because it seems so ordinary. & # 8221 ; ( 18 ) Jackson & # 8217 ; s first novel, & # 8220 ; The Road

Through the Wall & # 8221 ; ( 1948 ) , & # 8220 ; chronicles the prostration of a little community due to its ain inner diabolic contradictions.

By concentrating upon a whole vicinity, instead than upon a individual profaned supporter as in her other novels, the novel

creates an effectual metaphor or microcosm for the tensenesss inherent in the civilization in the postwar period. Furthermore,

whether the supporter is single or corporate, the novel adumbrates and begins geographic expedition of one of Jackson & # 8217 ; s

primary concerns throughout her calling: the dark inexplicable topographic point or discoloration upon the human psyche and our

go oning sightlessness and, therefore, exposure to it. Jackson & # 8217 ; s fiction garbages to compromise with the glib psychological sciences

of our curative age & # 8221 ; ( Woodruff, 155 ) . Literary critic Charlotte Jackson explains how successfully Jackson wrote

non-fiction prose in her work, & # 8220 ; Witchcraft of Salem Village & # 8221 ; . & # 8220 ; There is good introductory background and though the

narrative & # 8217 ; s capable is by nature dismaying the book does non play on the emotions. It ends on the positive note that public

reaction to the evidently vindictive motivations of some of the informants made these the last witchery tests in the New

World and did much to kill belief in witchery by and large & # 8221 ; ( 103 ) . In & # 8220 ; Life Among the Savages & # 8221 ; ( 1953 ) and & # 8220 ; Raising

Demons & # 8221 ; ( 1957 ) , & # 8220 ; the horror is non absent ; it is simply held at bay, as the rubrics themselves forcefully hint. If we pour in

energy plenty, these books suggest, we can keep off information for a piece. Her two & # 8216 ; fictionalized & # 8217 ; histories of

& # 8230 ; domestic life convey a felicity that could non hold been wholly invented. & # 8221 ; ( Kittredge, 14 )

Jackson & # 8217 ; s subjects normally ever come back to the immorality found in ordinary things. & # 8220 ; That the familiar can go foreign,

that the degree flow of being can falsify in the battling of an oculus, was the subject to which she most frequently returned. She

liked characters whose heads seemed to be untidy and a touch hysterical, but whose overzealous appreciation of world is in some

incomprehensible manner deeper than we can understand. The motives she preferred to analyze were ne’er those of ground nor

yet of fortunes nor of passion-but of some dark quality in a psychological conditions when the glass is falling and the

air current get downing to purse & # 8221 ; ( Davenport, 4 ) . Like her subject, Jackson normally uses the same gender, as her chief

character, in her novels besides. Lynette Carpenter explains that & # 8220 ; In fiction, she writes most frequently about adult females. The

typical Jackson supporter is a alone immature adult female fighting toward adulthood. She is a societal misfit, non beautiful

plenty, capturing adequate, or articulate plenty to acquire along badly with other people, excessively introspective and awkward. In

short, she does non suit any of the feminine stereotypes available to her & # 8221 ; ( 146 ) . In the terminal, really few of her supporters

achieve much of a triumph over subjugation. Indeed most of Jackson & # 8217 ; s supporters are emotionally violated and must

battle urgently to get the better of their alienation and disruption, and most of them fail. The novel,

& # 8220 ; Hangsaman & # 8221 ; ( 1951 ) , was the first of her psychological novels. She had dealt with jobs of the head in her short

narratives, but this novel was her first sustained survey of mental aberrance, in this instance schizophrenic disorder. & # 8220 ; Miss Jackson & # 8217 ; s

love of enigma and ambiguity is apparent in this novel, for the reader receives merely bit-by-bit information as Natalie see

it. There are spreads, hence, in his cognition. Suspense builds, and the enigma deepens with the visual aspect of Tony ;

but, even by the terminal of the novel, there is confusion as to who Tony is and as to what has really taken topographic point. Merely at

the terminal of the narration does the reader discover that Tony is and has been a merchandise of Natalie & # 8217 ; s imaginativeness or,

technically, another facet of Natalie & # 8217 ; s self & # 8221 ; ( Friedman, 86 ) . In Jackson & # 8217 ; s last three novels, & # 8220 ; The Sundial & # 8221 ; ( 1958 ) , & # 8220 ; The

Haunting of Hill House & # 8221 ; ( 1959 ) , and & # 8220 ; We Have Always Lived in a Castle & # 8221 ; ( 1962 ) , & # 8220 ; the Gothic house is a outstanding

characteristic. It serves non merely as the focal point of action or as atmosphere, but as a force or influence upon character or a

contemplation of character & # 8230 ; The house non merely reflects the insanities of its residents, but serves as a fitting microcosm of

the lunacies of the universe & # 8221 ; ( Park, 22 ) . In & # 8220 ; The Sundial & # 8221 ; , John G. Park explains that & # 8220 ; it is a nicely woven novel, where

imagination and technique work together good. Through the usage of assorted motives, such as the house imagination, mentions to

clip, Jackson is able to juxtapose character, subject, and incident in galvanizing and dry ways. As in her other work,

Jackson employs a dexterous sort of cinematic focussing, making a simultaneousness of consequence and capturing good a roomful of

conversation. The fresh satirizes a human status where credulousness, avarice, and blameworthiness reign virtually

unrestrained by moral rule and make a community of the endurance of the worst. The sarcasm is non without rich

wit & # 8221 ; ( 21 ) . Shirley Jackson & # 8217 ; s fiction is filled with lonely, despairing adult females who reflect the decompositions of modern

life. The is seen rather clearly in Elizabeth Richmond, the disintegrating supporter of & # 8220 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s Nest & # 8221 ; ( 1954 ) . & # 8220 ; While

Jackson was a womb-to-tomb pupil of mental unwellness, and all of her novels explore some facet of the interior life, & # 8220 ; The Bird & # 8217 ; s

Nest & # 8221 ; is doubtless her most overtly psychological novel. She demonstrates that charming thought and charming phantasies

by themselves are non merely useless but unsafe ; to convey felicity, the existent thaumaturgy of the human personality must be

purposefully grasped and wielded with finding & # 8221 ; ( Kittredge, 4 ) Jackson in her 1951 novel, & # 8220 ; The Haunting of Hill

House & # 8221 ; , gives evil force non merely world, but personality and intent. & # 8220 ; The occult in this novel is neither merchandise

nor aspect of the chief character & # 8217 ; s head ; it is outside her, and independently existent. It does non busy her ; instead, it lures

and seduces her away from the strivings and jobs of the existent universe into a ghostly being as another haunting spirit.

In & # 8220 ; Haunting & # 8221 ; , the immorality is developed to the point of winning the struggle ; there is no happy stoping for the heroine,

because her character is excessively weak for the conflict. She does non take lunacy, but is overwhelmed by it. & # 8221 ; ( Kittredge,

15 ) . Throughout all her work, critics seem to hold respected Shirley Jackson as an American novelist, short narrative

author, and nonfiction author. Mary Kittredge writes that & # 8220 ; in all the facets of her life, & # 8230 ; ..Jackson fought whatever

obstructions she encountered at least to a draw. Her success in the horror genre, like her successful domestic comedy, was

the consequence of an finely sensitive dual vision that would hold seemed an affliction to a less determined or talented

author. She saw the thaumaturgy in the mundane, and the immorality behind the ordinary. She saw that the line between the cruel and

the comedic is sometimes vanishingly narrow & # 8221 ; ( 12 ) . As Lenemaja Friedman points out Jackson & # 8217 ; s greatest strengths are

in the & # 8220 ; expert handling of wit, enigma, ambiguity, and suspense. Her humor and imaginativeness have created off-beat and

original narratives. Her characters are reliable, if frequently unusual, people ; and, as the critics point out, her prose manner is

excellent. She chooses a simple, undecorated direct, clear mode of speech production to her reader. Her lines flow equally,

swimmingly, and have a distinguishable beat. Despite the deficiency of critical attending, her books continue to be popular with those

people who are sensitive, inventive, and fun-loving ; and possibly in the long tally, that popularity will be what

counts & # 8221 ; ( 161 ) .

Carpenter, Lynette. & # 8220 ; Domestic Comedy, Black Comedy, and Real Life: Shirley Jackson, a Woman Writer. & # 8221 ; Faith of a

Woman Writer. Greenwood Press, 1988, p. 146.

Davenport, Guy. & # 8220 ; Dark Psychological Weather. & # 8221 ; The New York Times Book Review. 15 September 1968, p. 4.

Friedman, Lenemaja. Shirley Jackson. Twayne Publishers: Boston, 1975, p. 18, 21, 26, 29, 31, 36, 40, 44, 64, 86,

161.

Yokels, Granville. & # 8220 ; The Nightmare in Reality. & # 8221 ; Saturday Review, No. 38. 17 September 1966, p. 31.

Jackson, Charlotte. & # 8220 ; Mrs. Jackson Creates of Shocking Facts a Fascinating Suspense Story. & # 8221 ; Atlanic Magazine.

December 1956, p. 103.

Jackson, Shirley. & # 8220 ; The Lottery. & # 8221 ; The New Yorker. 28 June 1948. p. 292.

Janeway, Elizabeth. & # 8220 ; The Grotesque Around Us, & # 8221 ; The New York Times Book Review. 9 October 1966. p. 58.

Kittredge, Mary. & # 8220 ; The Other Side of Magic: A Few Remarks About Shirley Jackson. & # 8221 ; Detecting Modern Horror

Fiction. Starmont House, New York, 1985. p. 4, 12, 14, 15.

Kosenko, Peter. & # 8220 ; A Marxist/Feminist Reading of Shirley Jackson & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; The Lottery & # 8217 ; . & # 8221 ; The New Orleans Review. Spring

1985. p. 225.

Nebeker, Helen. & # 8221 ; & # 8216 ; The Lottery & # 8217 ; : Symbolic Tour de France, & # 8221 ; American Literature: Duke University, North Carolina,

1974. p. 107.

Oehlshlaeger, Fritz. & # 8220 ; The Stoning of Mistress Hutchinson: Meaning of Context in & # 8216 ; The Lottery & # 8217 ; . & # 8221 ; Essaies in Literature.

No. 2, Fall, 1988. p. 259, 261.

Oppenheimer, Judy. Private Devils: The Life of Shirley Jackson. G.P. Putnam & # 8217 ; s Sons: New York, 1988. p. 45, 60.

Park, John G. & # 8220 ; Waiting for the End: Shirley jackson & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; The Sundial & # 8217 ; . & # 8221 ; Critique: Surveies in Modern Fiction, No. 3. ,

1978. p. 21, 22.

Wolff, Geoffrey. & # 8220 ; Shirley Jackson & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; Magic Style & # 8217 ; . & # 8221 ; The New Leader. No. 17. 9 September 1968. p. 18.

Woodruff, Stuart. & # 8220 ; The Real Horror Elsewhere: Shirley Jackson & # 8217 ; s Last Novel. & # 8221 ; Southwest Review. Spring, 1967. P.

155.

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