Sigmund Freud Essay, Research Paper
Freud was born in Freiberg, on May 6, 1856, and educated at the University of Vienna.When he was three old ages old his household, flying from the anti-semitic public violences so ramping inFreiberg, moved to Leipzig. Shortly thenceforth, the household settled in Vienna, where Freudremained for most of his life. Although Freud & # 8217 ; s aspiration from childhood had been a calling in jurisprudence, he decided tobecome a medical pupil shortly before he entered the University of Vienna in 1873. Inspiredby the scientific probes of the German poet Goethe, Freud was driven by an intensedesire to analyze natural scientific discipline and to work out some of the disputing jobs confrontingcontemporary scientists. In his 3rd twelvemonth at the university Freud began research work on the cardinal nervoussystem in the physiological research lab under the way of the German physician ErnstWilhelm von Br cke. Neurological research was so steeping that Freud neglected theprescribed classs and as a consequence remained in medical school three old ages longer than wasrequired usually to measure up as a doctor. In 1881, after finishing a twelvemonth of compulsorymilitary service, he received his medical grade. Unwilling to give up his experimental work, nevertheless, he remained at the university as a demonstrator in the physiological research lab. In1883, at Br cke & # 8217 ; s pressing, he reluctantly abandoned theoretical research to derive practicalexperience. Freud spent three old ages at the General Hospital of Vienna, giving himselfsuccessively to psychiatry, dermatology, and nervous diseases. In 1885, following hisappointment as a lector in neuropathology at the University of Vienna, he left his station at thehospital. Subsequently the same twelvemonth he was awarded a authorities grant enabling him to pass 19weeks in Paris as a pupil of the Gallic neurologist Jean Charcot. Charcot, who was thedirector of the clinic at the mental infirmary, the Salp tri rhenium, was so handling nervous disordersby the usage of hypnotic suggestion. Freud & # 8217 ; s surveies under Charcot, which centered mostly onhysteria, influenced him greatly in imparting his involvements to abnormal psychology. In 1886 Freud established a private pattern in Vienna specialising in nervous disease.He met with violent resistance from the Viennese medical profession because of his strongsupport of Charcot & # 8217 ; s irregular positions on crazes and hypnotherapy. The bitterness heincurred was to detain any credence of his subsequent findings on the beginning of neuroticism. Freud & # 8217 ; s foremost published work, On Aphasia, appeared in 1891 ; it was a survey of theneurological upset in which the ability to articulate words or to call common objects islost as a consequence of organic encephalon disease. His concluding work in neurology, an article, InfantileCerebral Paralysis, was written in 1897 for an encyclopaedia merely at the insisting of theeditor, since by this clip Freud was occupied mostly with psychological instead thanphysiological accounts for mental upsets. His subsequent Hagiographas were devoted entirelyto that field, which he had named depth psychology in 1896. Freud & # 8217 ; s new orientation was heralded by his collaborative work on crazes with theViennese physician Josef Breuer. The work was presented in 1893 in a preliminary paper andtwo old ages subsequently in an expanded signifier under the rubric Studies on Hysteria. In this work thesymptoms of crazes were ascribed to manifestations of outstanding emotional energyassociated with disregarded psychic injury. The curative process involved the usage of ahypnotic province in which the patient was led to remember and reenact the traumatic experience, thusdischarging by katharsis the emotions doing the symptoms. The publication of this workmarked the beginning of psychoanalytic theory formulated on the footing of clinical observations. During the period from 1895 to 1900 Freud developed many of the constructs that werelater incorporated into psychoanalytic pattern and philosophy. Soon after printing the studieson craze he abandoned the usage of hypnosis as a psychotherapeutic process and substituted theinvestigation of the patient & # 8217 ; s self-generated flow of ideas, called free association, to uncover
the unconscious mental proces
ses at the root of the neurotic disturbance. In his clinical observations Freud found evidence for the mental mechanisms ofrepression and resistance. He described repression as a device operating unconsciously tomake the memory of painful or threatening events inaccessible to the conscious mind.Resistance is defined as the unconscious defense against awareness of repressedexperiences in order to avoid the resulting anxiety. He traced the operation of unconsciousprocesses, using the free associations of the patient to guide him in the interpretation ofdreams and slips of speech. Dream analysis led to his discoveries of infantile sexuality and ofthe so-called Oedipus complex, which constitutes the erotic attachment of the child for theparent of the opposite sex, together with hostile feelings toward the other parent. In theseyears he also developed the theory of transference, the process by which emotional attitudes,established originally toward parental figures in childhood, are transferred in later life to others.The end of this period was marked by the appearance of Freud’s most important work, TheInterpretation of Dreams (1900). Here Freud analyzed many of his own dreams recorded in the3-year period of his self-analysis, begun in 1897. This work expounds all the fundamentalconcepts underlying psychoanalytic technique and doctrine. In 1902 Freud was appointed a full professor at the University of Vienna. This honorwas granted not in recognition of his contributions but as a result of the efforts of a highlyinfluential patient. The medical world still regarded his work with hostility, and his next writings,The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904) and Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory(1905), only increased this antagonism. As a result Freud continued to work virtually alone inwhat he termed splendid isolation. By 1906, however, a small number of pupils and followers had gathered around Freud,including the Austrian psychiatrist William Stekel and Alfred Adler, the Austrian psychologistOtto Rank, the American psychiatrist Abraham Brill, and the Swiss psychiatrists Eugen Bleulerand Carl Jung. Other notable associates, who joined the circle in 1908, were the Hungarianpsychiatrist S ndor Ferenczi and the British psychiatrist Ernest Jones. Increasing recognition of the psychoanalytic movement made possible the formation in1910 of a worldwide organization called the International Psychoanalytic Association. As themovement spread, gaining new adherents through Europe and the U.S., Freud was troubled bythe dissension that arose among members of his original circle. Most disturbing were thedefections from the group of Adler and Jung, each of whom developed a different theoreticalbasis for disagreement with Freud’s emphasis on the sexual origin of neurosis. Freud metthese setbacks by developing further his basic concepts and by elaborating his own views inmany publications and lectures. After the onset of World War I Freud devoted little time to clinical observation andconcentrated on the application of his theories to the interpretation of religion, mythology, art,and literature. In 1923 he was stricken with cancer of the jaw, which necessitated constant,painful treatment in addition to many surgical operations. Despite his physical suffering hecontinued his literary activity for the next 16 years, writing mostly on cultural and philosophicalproblems. When the Germans occupied Austria in 1938, Freud, a Jew, was persuaded by friendsto escape with his family to England. He died in London on September 23, 1939. Freud created an entirely new approach to the understanding of human personality byhis demonstration of the existence and force of the unconscious. In addition, he founded a newmedical discipline and formulated basic therapeutic procedures that in modified form areapplied widely in the present-day treatment of neuroses and psychoses. Although neveraccorded full recognition during his lifetime, Freud is generally acknowledged as one of thegreat creative minds of modern times.Among his other works are Totem and Taboo (1913), Ego and the Id (1923), New IntroductoryLectures on Psychoanalysis (1933), and Moses and Monotheism (1939).