Similarities Of Religous Documents Essay, Research Paper
A society that consists of complex organisation is defined as a civilisation.
A civilisation is made up of different factors, including authorities, faith, and civilization. Through these factors evolved a set of rules for the people to populate by. These were called codifications of behavior. Through the scrutiny of the Judgments of Hammurabi, the Egyptian & # 8220 ; Negative Confessions, & # 8221 ; and the Ten
Commandments, illations will be drawn to explicate the logical thinking that may hold
promoted their creative activity and the similarities among others.
In the 18th century BC the Babylonian male monarch, Hammurabi, conquered
the Sumerians. Government, faith, and civilization dictated life in Mesopotamia.
Each city state was ruled by a sovereign, male monarch, or priest-kings. These swayers were extremely worshipped and seen as mediators between the Sumerians and their Gods. ( Craig, 7 ) The male monarchs controlled the economic system. Detailed scrutiny was taken before the applying of any thought, such as the distribution of harvests. The Sumerians practiced polytheism. Their Gods were of human signifier, & # 8220 ; merely differing from worlds in their greater power and immortality. & # 8221 ; ( Craig, 8 ) The people concentrated on fulfilling their Gods during their present life. Therefore, Sumerians cultivated several methods of divination to detect the volitions and purpose of the Gods. They studied the internal variety meats of animate beings to better understand abnormalcies and they gave rise to star divination by the scrutiny of the celestial organic structures. ( Craig, 8 ) The people & # 8217 ; s civilization was based around the household unit, commercialism, and agribusiness. The Codes of Hammurabi revolved around this civilization. ( Craig, 8 )
The Code of Hammurabi was created during Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s reign from 1792-1750 BC. Harmonizing to Alfred J. Andrea, & # 8220 ; the Torahs were inscribed in a rock pillar that measured over seven pess in tallness and more than six pess in circumference. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 12 ) The codification stated the Torahs the society was obligated
to obey. Hammurabi stated the intent of his Torahs were, & # 8220 ; to advance the public assistance
of the people, to do justness to predominate in the land, to destruct the wicked and the immorality, that the strong may non suppress the weak. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 12 ) The society was left in pandemonium after the autumn of the Ur Dynasty. Hammurabi created his codifications to restore order.
One of the major factors in Sumerian civilisation was the household unit.
Many of the Torahs created by Hammurabi focused on the household. One of the Torahs
stated in his codification was, & # 8220 ; If a adult male marries a married woman, and illness has seized her, and he has decided to get married another, he may get married, but his married woman whom the illness has seized he shall non disassociate. She shall brood in the house he has built and he shall back up her while she lives. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 15 ) This jurisprudence shows a adult male can non make up one’s mind to go forth his present married woman over illness but he must continue his matrimony until she dies. From this jurisprudence can be determined that some of the Sumerian society was infected with long-run unwellnesss. Wifes who were sick were frequently abandoned by their hubbies. The hubby & # 8217 ; s ground of forsaking could be his ill married woman no longer satisfied him. There would be no intent for her since she could no longer be a caretaker nor produce kid for the hubby. Yet, at the same clip, it can be understood a adult male is allowed to remarry in hopes of organizing a new household with his new married woman. Due to the forsaking of married womans, many were likely left without places or money taking them into poorness. The suggested logical thinking behind this jurisprudence was to cut down divorce, poorness, and forsaking among ill married womans.
Through the scrutiny of Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s codes, it is clear that commercialism was really of import in Sumerian society. The 3rd largest class under Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s codification was commercialism. Certain subdivisions of the codifications dealt with modulating builders, sawboness, and other professions. ( Craig, 8 ) Hammurabi created a codification which stated, & # 8220 ; If a builder has built a house for a adult male, and his work is non strong, and if the house he has built falls in and kills the house holder that
builder shall be slain. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 16 ) Through a review of this jurisprudence, several
decisions can be drawn. It may be presumed that builders were non responsible
in their edifice. If a individual puts their profession into pattern, it should be because they studied and mastered it. Therefore, no such bad luck should happen. Hammurabi believed this to be true so the jurisprudence was created.
The Sumerians depended extremely on farming as their beginning of nutrient, so
agribusiness was of import. Thus, many of the Torahs contained within Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s
codification of behavior pertained to agricultural affairs. Even though the society used a pecuniary system, harvests such as maize and benne were valued. One of
Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s codification stated & # 8220 ; If anyone unfastened his ditches to H2O his harvest, but is
careless, and the H2O flood the field of his neighbour, so he shall pay his
neighbour maize for his loss. & # 8221 ; ( Counsel, 1 ) Hammurabi thought people should be
responsible for their actions as seen through most of his Torahs. If the individual who flooded his neighbour did non do an damagess for destroying the field, the individual whose field was flooded would travel hungry. Therefore, if the Torahs were non put into consequence, no 1 would care about the agribusiness and the society would endure as a consequence.
Another civilisation that occurred during early history was the Egyptian
civilisation. The Egyptians were ruled by Egyptian male monarchs called Pharaoh. The
Pharaoh were dictators. They created the Torahs of the land, their Torahs were ne’er questioned, and the people were their retainers. ( Craig, 10 ) Religion played an tremendous portion in Egyptian life. They practiced a polytheistic signifier of faith, affecting half-man, half-animal Gods. From this faith, they had an advanced position of the after life. They mummified the dead because they believed worlds had two organic structures, one physical and one spiritual. If the organic structure was right preserved so the spirit would go on in their hereafter. ( Craig, 11 ) Religion besides dictated their civilization. The Pharaoh were considered Gods. In order to procure their entryway into the after life they followed rigorous codifications of behavior, such as reflected in the Negative Confessions. ( Andrea, 19 )
The Negative Confessions were created by the priest of the Gods during the New Kingdom in 1575. These confessions are a chapter from The Book of the Dead, besides known as The Chapters Coming Forth by Day. ( Andrea, 19 ) These confessions stated what one did non make. The intent of following the guidelines was to procure entryway into the hereafter. The confessions took topographic point in the Hall of
Two Truths. In this hall, the deceased proclaimed his/her pureness by saying
everything he did non make that may hold caused discourtesy to the Gods. He was judged by the 42 divinities. ( Andrea, 19 ) Some illustrations of these confessions are, & # 8220 ; I have non ordered to kill, I have non made anyone suffer, I have non damaged the offering in the temples. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 21 ) The confessions granted the Egyptians a place among the Gods.
Several grounds lead to the creative activity of Thursday
e Negative Confessions. Egyptians lived a suffering life. They could non object to any of the pharaoh’s regulations. They were expected to finish his every desire. In consequence, they became his
slaves. Egyptians lived in changeless paranoia. As a consequence of this paranoia, the
Egyptians were obsessed with the hereafter. They believed their present life
influenced their religious life. If they disobeyed a Pharaoh & # 8217 ; s rule on Earth, they believed penalty would follow in the hereafter. The confessions served many of the Pharaoh intents. First, the confessions served moral and ethical guidelines. Egyptians followed these guidelines and society was kept in order. Second, these confessions served as guidelines to set up the blessing of the Gods in the hereafter. The Egyptians wanted a better life and if they followed these confessions they were given hope for a comfortable hereafter.
Moses lead the Hebrews out of bondage from Egypt into the Sania Desert.
In the procedure of rolling the Sania Desert for 40 old ages, Moses encountered
jobs with the Hebrews. Due to the tremendous figure of Hebrews, each Hebrew was supposed to look after each other, but some did non. Moses tried to transfuse the thought of monotheism among the Hebrews. The Hebrews were loath to believe in such a God who was suppose to be sort, but at the same clip tortured them with old ages of captivity to Egypt. Moses found himself in desperation by the
state of affairs. God called Moses up to Mt. Sania to present the Ten Commandments to
The Ten Commandments were written about in the Bible, and can be found under Deuteronomy. The commandments were guidelines for the Hebrews to populate their lives. Some of the commandments reflected monotheism. For illustration, & # 8220 ; I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall hold no other Gods besides me. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 58 ) In return for the Hebrews following these Torahs, God would give them his counsel and protection. It is believed that the Hebrew & # 8217 ; s new God may penalize them for
their wickednesss but subsequently in clip they would be rewarded with Godhead favour. ( Craig, 67 )
Different cardinal elements gave rise to the creative activity of the Ten Commandments. The first commandment provinces, the people will non hold any other Gods besides him. ( Andrea, 58 ) The Hebrews, who had lived in Egypt, were influenced by their faith and practiced polytheism. God wanted the Hebrews to halt idolizing others and give themselves to him. God created commandments such as, & # 8220 ; You shall honour your male parent and female parent, You shall non kill, You shall non perpetrate criminal conversation, you shall non steal, and You shall non want anything that belongs to your neighbor. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 59 ) From these commandments it can be reasoned slaying and stealing occurred every bit good as discourtesy among each other. There were different grounds for the creative activity of these commandments.
After the Hebrews regained their freedom, the people raged out of control and
forgot about spiritual beliefs. God created the commandments to restore
order. In the Ten Commandments God states, & # 8220 ; Neither shall you covet your
neighbours & # 8217 ; married woman ; and you shall non want your neighbours house, his field, or his adult male retainer, or his housemaid, his ox, or his buttocks, or anything that is your neighbors. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 59 ) Through these commandments God wanted to make a
community among his people. If each Hebrew respected each other & # 8217 ; s personal
belongings, a comfortable community would develop. God besides stated, & # 8220 ; cognize therefore that the Lord your God is God, the faithful God who keeps compact and
steadfast love with those who love him and maintain his commandments, to a 1000
generations. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 60 ) It can be inferred God wanted the Hebrews to
understand the commandments every bit good as the fact that he was ageless. He
governed their present life and their ageless life.
Similarities can be found among Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s codes, the Negative Confessions, and the Ten Commandments. Comparable fortunes may hold encouraged the creative activity of each of the codifications of behavior. Religion was one of the major influences on each papers. There is besides a connexion among the clip periods which may hold influenced the constitution of similar Torahs within each papers.
Each papers was likewise in the fact that they served as codifications of behaviors
for the civilisations. Besides, the construct of control was a common intent used for the creative activities of each papers. The Sumerians and Hebrews were in pandemonium
before the paperss existed, hence control was indispensable. The Negative
Confessions served the Pharaoh as regulations to maintain Egyptian society in control.
Many similarities existed through faith. Sumerians and Egyptians both
adept polytheism. However, the Hebrews were one of the first people to
adept monotheism. Sumerians believed if they disobeyed the Gods, they would
be punished on Earth. The Egyptians, on the other manus, believed penalty
would follow in the hereafter. In the Hebrew & # 8217 ; s faith, God punished the Hebrews on Earth every bit good as in their ageless lives if the commandments were disobeyed.
Each codification of behavior has dealingss to a anterior codification. For case,
Hammurabi had many codifications refering to personal hurt, such as, & # 8220 ; If a adult male
work stoppages the organic structure of a adult male who is superior in position, he shall publically have 60 ciliums with a cowskin whip. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 150 ) Some of the Egyptian & # 8217 ; s codifications of
behavior reflected Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s personal hurt codifications. Therefore, Egyptians stated in a broader sense, & # 8220 ; I have non done any injury, I have non caused hurting, and I have non caused tears. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 21 ) The codifications in the Ten commandments resemble the
Egyptian & # 8217 ; s Negative Confessions as good. A twosome of the Egyptian & # 8217 ; s confessions
were, & # 8220 ; I have non killed, and I have non ordered to kill. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 21 ) However, one of the commandments states & # 8220 ; You shall non kill. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 59 ) Another illustration of the commandments reflecting the confessions were, & # 8220 ; I have non robbed the hapless, I have non stolen the bars from the dead, and I have non taken milk from the oral cavity of children. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 21-22 ) Subsequently the commandment, & # 8220 ; You shall non steal & # 8221 ; was created. ( Andrea, 59 ) . Another of Hammurabi & # 8217 ; s codification stated, & # 8220 ; If bandit has non been taken, the adult male plundered shall claim before God what he has lost and the metropolis and governor in whose land and boundary the larceny has taken placed shall reconstruct to him all that he has lost. & # 8221 ; ( Andrea, 14 ) God so created the commandment in which no 1 is to take the private properties of their neighbour, including their field. ( Andrea, 59 ) The similarities that lie among the codifications are singular.
As a consequence, these codifications of behaviors have been adopted by modern civilisation.
Some states in the in-between E have prevalent Hammurabi s code a tooth for a
tooth. ( Andrea, 15 ) . The Ten Commandments still exist in faiths such as
Catholicism. Some of the Negative Confessions are still used as guidelines into the hereafter.