Sing, Sing, Sing Essay, Research Paper
SING SING SING
I used to ever travel over to my grandparent & # 8217 ; s house and watch my gramps go loony over this & # 8220 ; Jazz & # 8221 ; music. He explained to me that it wasn & # 8217 ; t Jazz unless it swung like the greats. I listened to a vocal & # 8220 ; Singing Sing Sing & # 8221 ; the other twenty-four hours from one of my Jazz aggregations that my grandfather gave to me and realized that their was so much energy and dynamism in this music. He explained to me that it was all put together by a cat named Benny, and I understood why.
Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David in 1909, one of 12 kids, grew up in a Chicago ghetto with his household, who fled Russian antisemitism. Encouraged by his male parent, an immigrant seamster, to larn a musical instrument, Goodman took up the clarinet at a immature age. From the start, he displayed an exceeding endowment. Before he was in his teens, he had begun executing in public. He received his first true clarinet and musical preparation from a local temple, so continued pattern through Hull House, a social-service bureau for the under privileged kids of the Chicago. The most of import of his instructors, at the school, was Franz Schoeppe, a classical teacher from the Chicago Musical College who ignored wind and stressed in his pupils the subject and regard for classical music.
After his male parent died, fourteen-year-old Benny helped back up his household by playing at a Chicago vicinity dance hall and working locally for two old ages. In 1925, Gil Rodin, who was so with the set led by Ben Pollack, heard him. Goodman was hired by Pollack, so working in
California, and the undermentioned twelvemonth made a triumphal return to Chicago as featured soloist with the set. Goodman remained with Pollack until 1929, when he became a much in-demand session instrumentalist in New York. When the set was between occupations, Goodman jammed with members of the Austin High Gang who introduced him to the New Orleans Rhythm Kings and the Dixieland clarinet manner of Leon Rappolo. After his seventeenth birthday Benny made his first entering with Pollack & # 8217 ; s set with the melody, & # 8220 ; He & # 8217 ; s the Last Word. & # 8221 ;
Benny besides played in the sets of leaders such as Red Nichols ( from 1929 to 1931 ) , Isham Jones, and Ted Lewis. During the early 30s Goodman played in sets led by Red Nichols, Ted Lewis, Sam Lanin and others. In 1934, Goodman led a dance set that performed on a regular basis on the national wireless show & # 8220 ; Let & # 8217 ; s Dance. & # 8221 ; His drummer was the pressing and exciting Gene Krupa ( Klauber, 1991 ) . When the wireless show ended, Goodman took the set on a countrywide circuit. In Los Angeles, the set created a esthesis,
basically get downing the & # 8220 ; swing & # 8221 ; epoch. In fact, Goodman became known as the & # 8220 ; King of Swing & # 8221 ; ( Collier, 1989 ) .
Swinging was the dominant parlance of the 1930s and much of the fortiess. Basically, it was a signifier of dance music played by a big set, and was the medium through which most white Americans first heard Jazz ( Schuller,1989 ) . Although the decennary 1935-45 was called the Swing Era, swing
agreements had been played by big sets get downing in the 1920s. Bandleader-arrangers Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, and, subsequently, Count Basie, worked out agreements for their 10 to 12 piece sets, which, unlike traditional wind sets, were divided into instrumental subdivisions.
The beat subdivision ( piano, guitar, bass, and membranophones ) maintained a steady, even beat ; the saxophone and brass subdivisions countered each other with consonant Riffs and perennial figures, with subdivision leaders improvizing
over this background ( Stewart, 1979 ) .
Utilized about entirely for dancing, the music of the large sets borrowed to a great extent from the techniques introduced by Henderson. Among the most popular sets were those led by Goodman, Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, the Dorsey brothers, and Artie Shaw. As a opposite number of the extremely ordered orchestrations of these New York-based sets, a Kansas City swing manner developed under the influence of Count Basie and Bennie Moten that emphasized a blues vocabulary and signifier
every bit good as pacing of breakneck
velocity and an overpowering usage of Riffs. Among the outstanding soloists associated with Kansas City was Lester Young of the Basie set.
In 1933 Goodman accepted an offer by the legendary manufacturer John Hammond to enter for Columbia & # 8217 ; s English market, which was more receptive to wind than were Americans. In that twelvemonth besides, Benny appeared at Bessie
Smith & # 8217 ; s last and Billie Holiday & # 8217 ; s first recording Sessionss. Hammond urged Goodman to engage Teddy Wilson and Lionel Hampton for his little jazz band, which included drummer Gene Krupa ; the group became the first interracial wind
ensemble to execute in public.
On Hammond & # 8217 ; s advice in 1934, Goodman purchased from the fighting bandleader Fletcher Henderson several of the hot big-band agreements that helped to do his set & # 8217 ; s repute. Henderson & # 8217 ; s stuff was lukewarmly received at foremost, because fans were accustomed to hearing a white set
drama & # 8220 ; sweet & # 8221 ; music. At a dance in Los Angeles & # 8217 ; s Palomar Ballroom on August 21, 1935, Goodman, fed up with the sweet charts, boldly called for Henderson & # 8217 ; s chauvinists. The crowd was wildly enthusiastic. Equally much as any individual event
could hold, this public presentation marked the coming of the Swing Era.
Goodman & # 8217 ; s set, utilizing Henderson & # 8217 ; s agreements, therefore became the first to accomplish mass popularity. Goodman was besides the first to incorporate his set racially. Whereas the most popular swing sets ( those of Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw, and Charlie Barnet ) were white,
some black swing sets besides came into prominence, particularly Ellington & # 8217 ; s, Basie & # 8217 ; s, and those of Earl Hines and Jimmie Lunceford ( Connor and Hicks,1969 ) .
Swing & # 8217 ; s popularity had faded by 1945, brought down in portion by a fiscal struggle between ASCAP ( the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers ) and the wireless webs, and in portion by a diminution in the popularity of dance hall dance ( Dance, 1979 ) .
Goodman besides made recordings playing instruments other than clarinet. In 1931, Benny made several recordings on alto Sax, such as & # 8220 ; Under Your Window, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; One More Time, & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Morning, Noon and Night. & # 8221 ; Goodman besides made recordings playing bass clarinet and barytone Sax. In classical music Goodman spent several old ages analyzing classical music, and often played with little chamber groups and became a consummate clarinet soloist with
symphonic music orchestras under such music directors as Bernstein, Toscanini and Ormandy. He performed new orchestral plants of Bartok, Stravinsky and Copland.
A complete list of the gifted sidemen who played with his set would possibly be impossible, but included among others, Lionel Hampton, Harry James, Georgie Auld, Ziggy Ellman, Charlie Christian, Red Norvo, Fletcher
Henderson, Gene Krupa, Teddy Wilson, George Wettling, Pee Wee Irwin, Miff Mole, Roy Eldridge, Stan Getz, and Cootie Williams.
& # 8220 ; The Benny Goodman Story, & # 8221 ; a movie made in 1955, depicted Benny Goodman & # 8217 ; s life, and Benny recorded the sound path for it. In the 1950s to the seventiess he made several abroad trips and played at selected battles
with a little set. One such trip was to Russia in 1962. In January 1978 he returned to Carnegie Hall to make a Concert. The tickets all sold out the first twenty-four hours. His last studio recordings were made in January 1986.
Collier, J. Benny Goodman and the Swing Era. New York:
West Publishing Company, 1989
Connor, R. and Hicks, W. B. G. on the Record: A Bio-
Discography of Benny Goodman. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall. 1969
Dance, S. The World of Swing. New York: Oxford University
Klauber, B. The World of Gene Krupa. Belmont, CA:
Schuller, G. The Swing Era. New York: McGraw Hill, 1989.
Stewart, R. Jazz Masters of the & # 8217 ; 30s. New York: W.W.