Social Change: A Comparison Of Marshall Mcluhan And David Riesman Essay, Research Paper
The thought of sociological alteration is an of import 1. Throughout history society has made certain passages. These passages allowed society to go what it is today. Two of import theoreticians who wrote about passages in society were Marshall McLuhan and David Riesman. Though they greatly differed they besides agreed on certain things. Both theoreticians believed that there are three distinguishable stages in human history. McLuhan believed that there were three distinguishable stages of society which he termed unwritten, literary and electronic. Riesman believed that there were besides three stages of history which he termed tradition based, inner-directed and outer-directed.
Marshall McLuhan is best known for coining the phrase? The Medium is the message? . He believed that society today is centred around electronic media. On the other manus David Riesman who? s most celebrated book is entitled? Lonely Crowd? centred his research around features of American society. What these two work forces have in common is that they both believed that society could be separated into three distinguishable stages. Riesman believed that there were three distinguishable character types, tradition-directed, inner-directed and other-directed. While McLuhan believed that there were three types of society which he called unwritten societies, written societies and electronic societies. Riesman believed the enquiries into the relationship between societal construction and societal character. The inquiry cardinal to Riesman was what type of individual was being formed in the emerging capitalist societies in the developed states. McLuhan was theoretician of literature whose thoughts about media and planetary civilization stimulated treatment among societal theoreticians.
The first phase for both centred around little communities in which everyone knew each other. McLuhan believed that society began with unwritten societies. These centred on local linguistic communications and community life. Knowledge was passed on orally. Memory was important because deficiency of memory led to altering traditions. Myths and polytheism are cardinal elements of these spiritual societies. Tradition was important in these societies. Riesman had a similar construct he termed tradition-directed. This personality type is dominant in agricultural, rural societies characterized by high birth and decease rates. Populating in little communities the person has to follow the strong corporate values and spiritual traditions of the community. Both believed that there was a traditional beginning in which faith was an of import cardinal characteristic around which the community revolved.
Where they differed on their sentiments was that McLuhan believed that communicating was cardinal to unwritten societies. Spoken word was responsible for making integrity within unwritten societies. For Riesman the tradition-directed character was guided by the strong collective more and folkways of the community ( Garner, 154 ) .
McLuhan? s 2nd type of society was termed literate societies. These societies relied on uniformity of linguistic communication and resulted in the mergence of patriotism and schooling. Communication over distance and clip became possible because written histories were utilised. Individualism addition doing the diminution of group life because reading is a lone activity. For Riesman the 2nd personality type was inner-directed. This personality type is related to the emerging urban, industrial societies characterized by rapid population growing and economic development. The inner-directed individual is guided by internalized norms and values learned fro parents. This has to make with? rugged individuality? and the? American dream? . Both thought that this 2nd passage concentrated around the thought of individuality.
For McLuhan the manner people think and feel in societies in which unwritten communicating is the lone medium is different from the ideas and feelings of people in societies dominated by composing. McLuhan invented the term? Guttenberg Galaxy? to mention to the configuration of outlooks, thought forms, and cultural signifiers of feature of societies organized around the written and printed word as the medium of communicating ( Garner, 407 ) . Writing and print shape a different outlook or signifier of consciousness. Thought became extremely additive, consecutive, and analytical. For McLuhan, authorship is a? hot? medium, a medium that forces a specific reading on the receiving system of the message. Riesman? s inner-directed character Centres around industrialisation. There was an strength and? driveness? about the inner-directed, whether they were moralistic or ruthless and greed
Y. They tended to adhere more to internalise values even when separated from community and household. These are enterprisers.
The 3rd passage Centres around contemporary. The concluding passage harmonizing to McLuhan took society into electronic media societies. In these societies telecasting became the symbol of a new epoch. Peoples are more active than earlier. There is more freedom of pick. The used the term? re-tribalization? because it was about a return to the unwritten society outlook. Television brought people together. He besides referred to this as the? planetary small town? . Third Riesman wrote about the other-directed personality type. This personality type is characteristic of advanced capitalist societies that focus more on services and ingestion than on production. In these societies, the mass media manipulate one? s needs to increase the degree of economic ingestion. Persons tend to set to external force per unit areas and demands alternatively of trusting on an internal gyroscope, a preset plan. The cardinal metaphor here is the radio detection and ranging: other-directed people tend to alter their behavior all of a sudden harmonizing to their societal environment.
Radio extended some of the features of authorship. For McLuhan, wireless is a peculiarly? hot? medium, that quickly brought into being a coevals of political speechmakers who created intense feelings in the hearers for illustration Hitler, Franklin Roosevelt etc. telecasting is a? cool? medium that allows the spectator a broad scope of possibilities. He suggests that one of the ways in which telecasting impacts society is a? detribalization? . This detribalization does non intend merely a re-awakening of ethnic/cultural solidarities that challenge modern state provinces from within, it besides means a planetary rebuilding of small town life, an intense, communal, and concrete type of consciousness that repeats some characteristics of unwritten civilizations. Television creates? the planetary small town, ? transitional individualities, world-wide information flows, planetary chitchat, and a sense of interconnection. For many people, this chilling system brings on a womb-to-tomb province of psychic asperity mortis, or of sleepwalking, peculiarly discernible in periods of new engineering. Riesman other-directed type was more about ingestion. There is conformance achieved through being sensitive to the actions and wants of others ( Garner, 157 ) .
McLuhan talked about advertisement. He thought that the merchandise affairs less as the audience participates more ( 411, Garner ) . The advertisement industry is a rough effort to widen the rules of mechanization to every facet of society ( Garner, 412 ) . Photo and Television seduce us from the literate and private? point of position? to the complex and inclusive universe of the group icon ( Garner, 414 ) . Today, with Television, we are sing the opposite procedure of incorporating and interrelating that is anything but guiltless ( Garner, 415 ) . The other-directed are guided by equals and the media. They do non hold a specific set of internalized values and ends, but merely internalized mechanisms that allow them to feel and accommodate to altering outlooks of others.
For Riesman the other directed is besides directed by equals and the media ( Garner 165 ) . There is a passage from being a competitory inner-directed to a blessing oriented other-directed type ( Garner, 165 ) . The equal group becomes the step of all things ( Garner, 165 ) .
Riesman coined the phrase? inside-dopester? to depict other-directed who has concluded that since he can make nil to alter political relations, he can merely understand it ( Garner, 167 ) . He will travel to great lengths to maintain from looking and experiencing like the uninformed foreigner. Not all other-directed people are inside-do pesters, but possibly, for the deficiency of a more mature theoretical account, many of them aspire to be ( Garner, 168 ) .
In decision although David Riesman and Marshall McLuhan had different Centres to their work they carried similarities as good. McLuhan was interested in mass media. Riesman was interested in societal features of American Society.
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