Social Welfare Essay, Research Paper
httpSocial Welfare is defined as being plans that are run by authorities to advance the well being of its citizens. Throughout the history of the United States Social Welfare plans have been capable to many alterations, due to the altering doctrines of Us Citizens.
During Colonial times Social Welfare demands were met chiefly through common assistance. The bulk of people lived in farming communities. Peoples in these communities lived in drawn-out households. Peoples by and large worked together to back up each other. If a individual had a job their households and communities reached out to assist. Merely seldom were at that place people who did non acquire their demands met by their households. In that event, churches or private organisations normally stepped into aid these people. ( Morales, Sheafor, 2000 )
The 1800 & # 8217 ; s and early 1900 & # 8217 ; s brought about major alterations to households and to the economic system. Peoples began to travel off from farms and into metropoliss where there were occupations. Peoples began to trust entirely on themselves instead than their drawn-out households for support. As industrialisation began machines began to take over work that was antecedently done by people. Peoples found it progressively difficult to happen work that could prolong their demands. Peoples who were from vulnerable populations, such as the aged, had a hard clip acquiring their demands met. Peoples began to hold a existent demand for societal public assistance plans that were beyond what households and communities could supply. ( Morales, Sheafor, 2000 )
As Colonial America grew more complex, the localised systems of alleviation were strained. The consequence was some limited motion to province support and the creative activity of hapless
houses to & # 8216 ; contain & # 8217 ; the job. ( Tanenhaus, 2000 ) Relief was made every bit unpleasant as possible in order to deter dependance. Those people who received alleviation could lose their personal belongings, their right to vote, their right to travel, and in some instances were even required to were a big & # 8220 ; P & # 8221 ; on their vesture to denote their position. ( SSA History Page ) .
The 1930 & # 8217 ; s brought about economic catastrophe for the United States. Unemployment degrees soared to 25 % . ( SSA ) Suddenly there were all types of people who were unable to run into their ain demands. Peoples could no longer warrant economic failure as moral defects. Economic catastrophe became so widespread during the Great Depression that people had no pick but to look to the US Government to assist run into their demands. In 1935 President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed several societal plans that were designed to help those in demand.
The basis of these societal public assistance plans was the Social Security Act of 1935. This was the first clip that the United States Government used federal and public financess to run into the public assistance needs of the people. This insured that the aged and the handicapped could keep at least a minimal criterion of life. Social Security is post retirement insurance. It is financed through paysheet revenue enhancements on rewards. Benefits are to be paid straight from the federal authorities to persons who are over the age of 62, handicapped individuals, or to kids of asleep or handicapped parents. ( SSA )
Another plan that was established during this clip was Aid to Families with Dependent Children ( AFDC ) . AFDC was a federally mandated plan that guaranteed
hard currency aid to households with destitute kids. Needy kids were defined as holding been & # 8220 ; deprived of parental support or attention because their male parent or female parent is absent signifier the place continuously, is incapacitated, is deceased, or is unemployed. ( Page, Larner, Vol 7 pg. 21 ) Both Social Security and AFDC were both entitlement plans. They provide benefits as a affair of right to those who meet the standards established by jurisprudence.
During the 1960 & # 8217 ; s there was a great enlargement in societal plans. In 1964, the Food Stamp Act expanded the function of the federal authorities in giving nutrient vouchers to destitute households. In 1965 President Johnson proposed a set of plans called the & # 8220 ; Great Society & # 8221 ; which were intended to ease economic hardsh
information sciences and eliminate racial inequality. The Great Society incorporated another set of plans called “The War on Poverty.”
One of the plans under the & # 8220 ; Great Society & # 8221 ; was the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. This provided federal aid to low income school territories to assist better the quality of educational plans and do the hapless more competitory for occupations and, hence, cut down the economic disadvantages of the hapless. ( National Records Archives )
Head Start was another Great Society plan. This is a preschool plan which is designed to fix destitute 3 and 4 twelvemonth olds for simple school. This plan teaches kids basic academic, societal accomplishments, wellness, and nutritionary instruction. This plan besides provides immunisation and medical and dental showing.
Medicaid and Medicare were created in 1965 to see wellness attention to the most vulnerable populations. Medicare is wellness benefits for the aged. Medicare is linked to
Social Security and is paid for through paysheet revenue enhancements. Medicaid is a federal plan that provides wellness benefits to low-income, blind, or handicapped people. This plan is administered by the provinces and is partly funded by the federal authorities.
The Great Society had a major impact on society. The part of Americans populating below the poorness line dropped from 22.2 to 12.6, the most dramatic diminution over such a period in this century. ( Califano, 1999 ) The impact of the Great Society & # 8217 ; s wellness plans has been stupefying. In 1963, most aged Americans and hapless people had no entree to wellness attention. Since 1966 more than 279,000 people have been given entree to wellness attention through Medicaid or Medicare. ( Califano, 1999 )
In the 1970 & # 8217 ; s the immense enlargement of societal plans began to melt. The economic system began to deteriorate and political conservativism began to increase. Peoples became disbelieving of human service plans. Throughout the 1980 & # 8217 ; s there were several efforts made by conservativists to try to level human service plans. Although the efforts for the most portion failed during the 1980 & # 8217 ; s, their efforts caused public sentiment of Human service plans to plump, and led the manner to sweeping alterations in these plans in the 1990 & # 8217 ; s.
In 1996 President Clinton, working with a republican Congress, abolished the AFDC plan and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families ( TANF ) . Social Welfare was no longer considered an entitlement. Peoples are now merely allowed to roll up benefits for a upper limit of 5 old ages even if their state of affairs worsens. The guidelines for roll uping TANF besides changed. Legal immigrants are no longer allowed to have
benefits. The definition of disablements besides changed. ( Morales, Sheafor, 2000 ) This forced many people who had antecedently been eligible for assistance, away of the public assistance functions.
Social welfare receivers are now expected to acquire a occupation within the first two old ages of having aid. It is ill-defined what will go on when people are forced off of public aid. In 1998 there was a 3 % diminution in the poorness degree, yet a 35 % diminution in the figure of people having public aid. ( Morales, Sheafor, 2000 ) . It is clear that stoping AFDC did non work out the job of poorness in the United States.
1. Social Work A Profession of Many Faces
Armando Morales and Bradford Sheafor
Copy write 2000
2. Social welfare, History, and the Framing of Twenty-First Century Social Policy
David s. Tanenhaus
Printed in the Journal of Social Service Review
Volume 74 figure 3 September 2000
3. Social Security Administration
4. Introduction to the AFDC Program
Stephen Page and Mary Larner
Printed in The Journal of The Future of Children
Volume 7 No. 1 Spring 1997
5. What Was Truly Great About The Great Society
Joseph A. Califano
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