From 1981 to 1989 the British economic system experienced eight old ages of sustained growing at the one-year mean rate over 3 % . However, later Britain and other major industrialized states were badly affected by recession. In Britain growing slowed to 0.6 % in 1990, and in 1991 gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) fell by 2.3 % . GDP fell in 1992 as a whole by 0.4 % , but it rose somewhat in the 2nd half of the twelvemonth. The recovery strengthened during the first portion of 1993 ; with GDP in the 2nd one-fourth being 2 % higher than a twelvemonth earlier ; the European Commission expected Britain to be the fastest growth of all major European economic systems in 1993 and1994.
Recent indicants that the recovery is under may include:
& # 183 ; an addition in fabricating end product ;
& # 183 ; a steady upward tendency in retail gross revenues ;
& # 183 ; additions in new auto enrollments ;
& # 183 ; record degrees of exports ;
& # 183 ; increased concern and consumer assurance ; and
& # 183 ; marks of greater activity in the lodging market.
The Government & # 8217 ; s policy is to guarantee sustainable economic growing through low rising prices and sound public fundss. The Gov & # 173 ; ernment & # 8217 ; s economic policy is set in the context of a medium-term fiscal scheme, which is revived each twelvemonth. Within this strat & # 173 ; egy, pecuniary and financial policies are designed to get the better of rising prices. Short-run involvement rates remain the indispensable instrument of pecuniary policy.
Macroeconomic policy is directed towards maintaining down the rate of rising prices as the footing for sustainable growing, while micro-economic policies seek to better the working of markets and promote endeavor, efficiency and flexibleness through steps such as denationalization, deregulating and revenue enhancement reforms.
The economic system is now profiting from well lower in & # 173 ; terest rates. In September 1993 base involvement rates were at 6 % . They had been cut by 9 per centum points since October 1990, and were at their lowest since 1977.
Private endeavors generate over three-fourthss of entire do & # 173 ; mestic income. Since 1979 the Government has privatized 46 major concerns and reduced the state-owned sector of industry by about two-thirds. The Government is taking steps to cut unneeded ordinances imposed on concern, and runs a figure of strategies which provide direct aid or advice to little and moderate-sized concerns.
In some sectors a little figure of big companies and their subordinates are responsible for a significant proportion of entire production, notably in the vehicle, aerospace and conveyance equipment industries. Private endeavors account for the greater portion of activity in the agricultural, fabrication, building, distributive, fiscal and assorted service sectors. The pri & # 173 ; vate sector contributed 75 % of entire domestic concluding outgo in 1992, general authorities 24 % and public corporations 1 % .
About 250 British industrial companies in the latest coverage period each had an one-year turnover of more than & # 163 ; 500 million. The one-year turnover of the biggest company, British Petroleum & # 8217 ; , makes it the llth largest industrial grouping in the universe and the 2nd largest in Europe. Five British houses are among the top 25 European Community companies.
The service industries, which include finance, retailing, tour & # 173 ; doctrine and concern services, contribute about 65 % of gross domestic merchandise and over 70 % of employment. Britain is responsible for some 10 % of the universe & # 8217 ; s exports of services ; overseas earn & # 173 ; ings from services amounted to 30 % of the value of exports of industries in 1992. The figure of employees in services rose from over 13 million in 1982 to 15.5 million by the terminal of 1992, much of the rise being accounted for by growing in parttime ( chiefly female ) employment.
Average existent disposable income per caput increased by about three-fourthss between 1971 and 1990 and this was reflected in a rise in consumer disbursement of fiscal, personal and leisure serv & # 173 ; ices and on the care and fix of consumer durable goodss. Demand for British travel, hotel and catering services rose as existent incomes in Britain and other states increased. The spread of place ownership, peculiarly during the 1980s, increased demand for legal and province bureau services.
Britain is a major fiscal Centre, lodging some of the universe & # 8217 ; s taking banking, insurance, securities, transportation, com & # 173 ; modities, hereafters, and other fiscal services and markets. Fi & # 173 ; nancial services are an of import beginning of employment and over & # 173 ; seas net incomes. Business services include publicizing, market rhenium & # 173 ; hunt, direction consultancy, exhibition and conference fa & # 173 ; cilities, calculating services and auction houses.
By the twelvemonth 2000, touristry is expected to be the universe & # 8217 ; s large & # 173 ; gest industry, and Britain is one of the universe & # 8217 ; s taking tourist finishs. The industry is Britain & # 8217 ; s 2nd largest, using about 7 % of the work force. Retailing is besides a major employer and Britain has an advanced distribution web. An of import tendency in retailing is the growing of out-of-town shopping Centres.
The computer science services industry continues to be one of the fastest-growing sectors of the economic system, and information technol & # 173 ; ogy is widely used in retailing and fiscal services.
A noteworthy tendency in the services sector is the growing of fran & # 173 ; chising, an operation in which a company having the rights to a peculiar signifier of trading licences them to franchises, normally by agencies of an initial payment with go oning royalties. The chief countries include cleansing services, movie processing, print stores, hair-dressing and cosmetics, fittingness Centres, courier bringing, auto lease, engine tuning and service, and fast nutrient retailing. It is estimated that franchising & # 8217 ; s portion of entire retail gross revenues is over 3 % , a figure which is likely to increase.
The strength of the habitue armed forces, all voluntaries, was about 271,000 in mid-1993 & # 8212 ; 133,000 in the Army, 79,300 in the Royal Air Force ( RAF ) and 58,500 in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. There were 18,800 adult females forces & # 8212 ; 7,500 in the Army, 6,800 in the RAF, and 4,400 in the Royal Navy.
British forces & # 8217 ; chief military functions are to:
& # 183 ; guarantee the protection and security of Britain and its de & # 173 ; pendant districts ;
& # 183 ; guarantee against any major external menace to Britain and its Alliess ; and
& # 183 ; contribute towards advancing Britain & # 8217 ; s wider security in & # 173 ; terests through the care of international peace and security.
Most of Britain & # 8217 ; s atomic and conventional forces are commit & # 173 ; ted to NATO and approximately 95 % of defense mechanism outgo to run intoing its NATO duties. In acknowledgment of the changed European security state of affairs, Britain & # 8217 ; s armed forces are being restructured in audience with other NATO Alliess.
Under these programs, the strength of the armed forces is being cut by 22 % , go forthing by the mid-1990s some 119,000 in the Army, 70,000 in the RAF and 52,500 in the Royal Navy and the Royal Marines. This involves decreases in chief equipment of:
& # 183 ; three Tornado GR1 squadrons, four Phantom squadrons, two Buccaneer squadrons and portion of a squadron of Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft ;
& # 183 ; 12 pigboats, nine destroyers and frigates and 13 mine
& # 183 ; countermeasures ships ; and
& # 183 ; 327 chief conflict armored combat vehicles.
Civilian staff employed by the Ministry of Defence will be re & # 173 ; duced from 169,100 in 1991 to 135,000.
As a member of NATO, Britain to the full supports the Alliance & # 8217 ; s current strategic construct, under which its undertakings are to:
& # 183 ; aid to supply a stable security environment, in which no state is able to intimidate or rule any European state through the menace or usage of force ;
& # 183 ; service as a transatlantic forum for Allied audiences af & # 173 ; fecting member provinces & # 8217 ; critical involvements ; deter from aggression and support member provinces against military onslaught ; and
& # 183 ; continue the strategic balance within Europe.
THE PRESS, RADIO AND TELEVISION
National Daily and Sunday Papers.
The British bargain more newspapers than any other people except Swedes and the Japa & # 173 ; nese. The day-to-day imperativeness differs in two obvious ways from that of any similar western European state. First, all over Britain most people read & # 8220 ; national & # 8221 ; documents, based in London, which wholly sell more transcripts than all eighty-odd provincial documents combined. Second, there is a dramatic difference between the five & # 8220 ; quality & # 8221 ; documents & # 8217 ; and the six mass-circulation popular & # 8220 ; yellow journalisms & # 8221 ; .
These features are still more outstanding with the Sunday imperativeness. Almost no documents at all are published in Britain on Sundays except & # 8220 ; national & # 8221 ; 1s: six & # 8220 ; popular & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; and five & # 8220 ; quality & # 8221 ; based in London. Three appear on Sundays merely ; the others are associated with dailies which have the same names but different editors, journalists and layouts. The & # 8220 ; quality & # 8221 ; Sunday documents devote big subdivisions to literature and the humanistic disciplines. They have colour addendums and are in many ways more like magazines than newspapers. They supply rather different universes of gustatory sensation and involvement from the & # 8220 ; popular & # 8221 ; documents.
Scotland has two of import & # 8220 ; quality & # 8221 ; documents, & # 8220 ; The Scots & # 173 ; adult male & # 8221 ; in Edinburgh and the & # 8220 ; Glasgow Herald & # 8221 ; .
The laterality of the national imperativeness reflects the failing of regional individuality among the English. The spread in quality is non so much between Labour and Conservative, as between degrees of ability to read and appreciate serious intelligence presented earnestly. Of the five quality forenoon documents merely & # 8220 ; The Daily Telegraph & # 8221 ; is solidly Conservative ; about all its readers are Conservatives. & # 8220 ; The Times & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Financial Times & # 8221 ; have a large minority of non-Conservative readers. Of the popular documents merely the & # 8220 ; Daily Mir & # 173 ; ror & # 8221 ; regularly supports Labour. Plenty of Labour electors read popular documents with Conservative dispositions, but do non alter their publican sentiment because of what they have read. Some of them are interested merely in the human involvement narratives and in athletics, and may good barely notice the coverage of political and economic personal businesss.
Except in cardinal London there are really few newspaper ki & # 173 ; osks in town streets. This may be because most pavings are excessively narrow to hold room for them. In towns the local eventide documents are sold by aged work forces and adult females who stand for many hours, stomping their pess to maintain warm. Otherwise, newspapers can be bought in stores or delivered to places by male childs and misss who want to gain money by making & # 8220 ; paper-rounds & # 8221 ; .
Most of the newspapers are owned by large companies, some of which have huge involvements in other things, runing from travel bureaus to Canadian woods. Some have been dominated by strong persons. The greatest of the imperativeness & # 8220 ; barons & # 8221 ; have non been British in beginning, but have come to Britain from Canada, Australia or Czechoslovakia. The most influential pioneer of modern times is partially Indian, and spent his early old ages in India. He pioneered the debut of new engineering in printing.
Among the & # 8220 ; quality & # 8221 ; documents the strongly Conservative & # 8220 ; Daily Telegraph & # 8221 ; sells more than twice as many transcripts as any of the others. It costs less to purchase and its coverage of events is really thorough. The & # 8220 ; Financial Times & # 8221 ; has a narrower entreaty, but is non narrowly restricted to concern intelligence. & # 8220 ; The Guardian & # 8221 ; has an old broad tradition, and is in general a paper of the Left.
The most celebrated of all British newspapers is & # 8220 ; The Times & # 8221 ; . It is non now, and has ne’er been, an organ of the authorities, and has no nexus with any party. In 1981 it and & # 8220 ; The Sunday Times & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; were taken over by the international imperativeness company of the Australian Rupert Murdoch, which besides owns two of the most & # 8220 ; popular & # 8221 ; of the national documents. Its editorial independency is protected by a super & # 173 ; visory organic structure, but in the 1980s it has on the whole been sympathetic to the Conservative authorities. The published letters to the editor have frequently been influential, and some lead to, drawn-out treatment in farther letters. Under the Murdoch government it has continued a motion off from its old asceticism.
The popular newspapers are now normally called & # 8220 ; yellow journalisms & # 8221 ; , a word foremost used for pharmaceutical substances compressed into pills. The tabloid newspapers compress the intelligence, and are printed on little sheets of paper. They use tremendous headlines for the taking points of each twenty-four hours, which are one twenty-four hours political, one twenty-four hours to make with offense, one twenty-four hours athletics, one twenty-four hours some uneven go oning. They have their pages of political study and remark, short, frequently over-simplified but smartly written and ( presents ) by and large responsible. They thrive on sensational narratives and exhilaration.
The two archetypical popular documents, the & # 8220 ; Daily Mail & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; and & # 8220 ; Daily Express & # 8221 ; were both built up by single barons in the early twentieth
century. Both had a feelin
g for the gustatory sensation of a newly-literate populace: if a adult male bites a Canis familiaris, that’s intelligence. The “Daily Express” was built up by a adult male born in Canada. He became a great adult male in the land, a close friend and associate of Winston Churchill, and a powerful curate in his War Cabinet. The circulation of the “Daily Express” at one clip exceeded four million transcripts a twenty-four hours. Now the first Lord Beaverbrook is dead, and the day-to-day gross revenues are non much more than half of their highest figure. The history of the “Daily Mail” , with its more conventional conservativism, is non greatly different.
In popular news media the & # 8220 ; Daily Mirror & # 8221 ; became a serious Rhode Island & # 173 ; val of the & # 8220 ; Express & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Mail & # 8221 ; in the 1940s. It was ever tab & # 173 ; loid, and ever devoted more infinite to visualize than to text. It was besides a innovator with strip sketchs. After the Second World War it on a regular basis supported the Labour Party. It shortly outdid the & # 8220 ; Daily Express & # 8221 ; in size of headlines, short sentences and explora & # 173 ; tion of exhilaration. It besides became the biggest-selling day-to-day intelligence & # 173 ; paper. For many old ages its gross revenues were approximately four million ; some & # 173 ; times good above.
Until the 1960s the old & # 8220 ; Daily Herald & # 8221 ; was an of import day-to-day paper reflecting the positions of the trade brotherhoods and the La & # 173 ; bour Party. Then it went through several alterations, until in the 1970s its replacement, & # 8220 ; The Sun & # 8221 ; , was taken over by Mr Murdoch & # 8217 ; s company. In its new tabloid signifier it became a rightist challenger to the & # 8220 ; Daily Mirror & # 8221 ; , with immense headlines and some nakedness. In the 1980s its gross revenues reached four million and exceeded the & # 8220 ; Daily Mirror & # 8221 ; . Mr Murdoch & # 8217 ; s News International already owned & # 8220 ; The News of the World & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; , a Sunday paper which has continued to give particular accent to dirts. But by 1990 its gross revenues were merely two-thirds of their former highest figure of eight million.
For a really long clip the imperativeness has been free from any gov & # 173 ; ernmental intervention. There has been no censoring, no subsidy. But for several decennaries it has seemed that some newspapers have abused their freedom. In viing with one another to acquire sto & # 173 ; ries to fulfill a public gustatory sensation for dirt, newsmans and photogra & # 173 ; phers have been tempted to hassle persons who have for one ground or another been involved, straight or indirectly, in events which could excite public wonder. Outstanding people of all sorts, every bit good as vague people who come into the intelligence as victims of offenses or accidents, have been pursued into their places for pho & # 173 ; tographs and interviews.
Local and Regional Documents.
Local forenoon documents have suffered from the cosmopolitan incursion of the London-based sodium & # 173 ; tional imperativeness. Less than 20 survive in the whole England, and their combined circulation is much less than that of & # 8220 ; The Sun & # 8221 ; entirely. Among local day-to-day documents those published in the eventides are much more of import. Each of approximately 70 towns has one, selling merely within a radius of 50 to 100 kilometers. The two London eventide documents, the & # 8220 ; News & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Standard & # 8221 ; , together sold two million transcripts in 1980, but they could non last, and merged into one, now called & # 8220 ; The London Evening Standard & # 8221 ; .
Most local day-to-day documents belong to one or other of the large imperativeness imperiums, which leave their local editors to make up one’s mind column policy. Largely they try to avoid any visual aspect of regular parti & # 173 ; sanship, giving equal weight to each major political party. They give heavy weight to local intelligence and support local involvements and local industries.
The entire circulation of all provincial day-to-day newspapers, forenoon and eventide together, is about eight million: approximately half every bit great as that of the national documents. In malice of this, some pro & # 173 ; vincial documents are rather comfortable. They do non necessitate their ain foreign letter writers ; they receive monolithic local advertisement, peculiarly about things for sale.
The genuinely local documents are hebdomadal. They are non taken really earnestly, being largely bought for the utile information con & # 173 ; tained in their advertizements. But for a foreign visitant wishing to larn something of the spirit of a local community, the hebdomadal local paper can be utile. Some of these documents are now given away, non sold out but supported by the advertisement.
The Weekly and Periodical Press.
Good English authorship is frequently to be found in the hebdomadal political and literary diaries, all based in London, all with countrywide circulations in the 10s of 1000s. & # 8220 ; The Economist & # 8221 ; , founded in 1841, likely has no equal everyplace. It has a coloured screen and a few exposure indoors, so that it looks like & # 8220 ; Time & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; , & # 8220 ; Newsweek & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; Der Spiegel & # 8221 ; , but its studies have more deepness and comprehensiveness than any these. It covers universe personal businesss, and even its American subdivision is more enlightening about America than its American equivalents. Although by no agency & # 8220 ; popular & # 8221 ; , it is vigorous in its remarks, and deserves the regard in which it is by and large held. & # 8220 ; Spectator & # 8221 ; is a hebdomadal diary of sentiment. It on a regular basis contains well-written articles, frequently politically slanted. It devotes about half its infinite to literature and the humanistic disciplines.
& # 8220 ; The Times & # 8221 ; has three hebdomadal addendums, all appeared and sold individually. The & # 8220 ; Literary Supplement & # 8221 ; is devoted about wholly to book reappraisals, and covers all sorts of new literature. It makes good usage of academic subscribers, and has at last, unlike & # 8220 ; The Economist & # 8221 ; , abandoned its old tradition of anon. rhenium & # 173 ; positions. & # 8220 ; New Scientist & # 8221 ; 4
, published by the company which owns the & # 8220 ; Daily Mirror & # 8221 ; , has good and serious articles about scientific research, frequently written by faculty members yet utile for the general reader.
One old British establishment, the satirical hebdomadal & # 8220 ; Punch & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; , sur & # 173 ; vives, more scratchy than in an earlier coevals yet happening it difficult to maintain the topographic point it one time had in a more unafraid societal system. Its attractive force, peculiarly for one rational young person, has been sur & # 173 ; passed by a new challenger, & # 8220 ; Private Eye & # 8221 ; , founded in 1962 by people who, non long earlier, had run a student & # 8217 ; magazine in Shrewsbury School. Its disgraceful stuff is laudably written on flagitious paper and its circulation challengers that of & # 8220 ; The Economist & # 8221 ; .
Glossy hebdomadal or monthly illustrated magazines cater either for adult females or for any of a 1000 particular involvements. Almost all are based in London, with national circulations, and the adult females & # 8217 ; s magazines sell 1000000s of transcripts. These, along with commercial telecasting, are the great pedagogues of demand for the new and better goods offered by the modern consumer society. In any large newsdealer & # 8217 ; s shop the long rows of brilliantly covered magazines seem to travel on for of all time ; beyond the big assortment of entreaties to adult females and adolescent misss come those concerned with boating, tennis, theoretical account railroads, horticulture and autos. For every activity there is a magazine, supported chiefly by its advertizers, and from clip to clip the constabulary conveying a heap of adult magazines to local magistrates, who have the hard undertaking of make up one’s minding whether they are sufficiently violative to be banned.
These specialist magazines are non inexpensive. They live off an in & # 173 ; finite assortment of gustatory sensation, wonder and involvement. Their production, hebdomad by hebdomad and month by month, represents a fabulous sum of attempt and of felled trees. Television has non killed the desire to read.
Radio and Television.
Since the 1970s 98 % of British families have had telecasting sets able to have four channels, two put out by the BBC, two by commercial companies. Commer & # 173 ; cial orbiter and overseas telegram Television began to turn significantly in 1989-1990, and by 1991 the two chief companies runing in Britain had joined together as British Sky Broadcasting. By 1991 about one family in 10 had the equipment to have this stuff.
Every family with Television must by jurisprudence wage for a license, which costs about the same for a twelvemonth as a popular newspaper every twenty-four hours.
Unlike the imperativeness, mass broadcast medium has been capable to some province control from its early yearss. One agreed intent has been to guarantee that intelligence, remark and treatment should be balanced and impartial, free of influence by authorities or advertizers. From 1926 first wireless, so Television every bit good, were entrusted to the BBC, which still has a board of governors appointed by the gov & # 173 ; ernment. The BBC & # 8217 ; s monopoly was ended in 1954, when an inde & # 173 ; pendant board was appointed by the Home Secretary to give Li & # 173 ; cences to air ( & # 8220 ; franchises & # 8221 ; ) to commercial Television companies financed by advertisement, and called in general independent televi & # 173 ; Zion ( ITV ) . These franchises have been given merely for a few old ages at a clip, so renewed capable to assorted conditions.
In 1990 Parliament passed a long and complex new Broad & # 173 ; projecting Act which made large alterations in the agreements for commercial Television and wireless. The old Independent Broadcasting Authority, which had given, franchises to the bing Television and wireless companies, was abolished. In its topographic point, for Television entirely, a new Independent Television Commission was set up in 1991, with the undertaking of presenting future franchises, early in the 1990s, either to the bing companies or to new challengers which were prepared to pay a higher monetary value. The Commission besides took over duty for licencing overseas telegram programme services, including those satellite Television channels which are carried on overseas telegram webs. The new jurisprudence did non alter the position of the BBC, but it did hold the intent of increasing competition, both among broadcasters and among manufacturers. It envisaged that a new commercial Television channel, TVS, would get down in the early 1990s.
The general nature of the four Television channels working in 1991, seems likely to go on, with BBC1 and ITV bring forthing a loosely similar mixture of programmes in competition with each other. ITV has a complex construction. Its chief intelligence is run by one company, Independent Television News, its early forenoon Television & # 8212 ; a.m. by another. There are about a twelve regional companies which broadcast in their parts for most each twenty-four hours, with up to ten proceedingss of advertizements in each hr, between programmes or as breaks at intervals of 20 or 30 proceedingss. These regional companies produce some programmes of local involvement and some which they sell to other parts, so that for much of each twenty-four hours the same stuff is put out all through the state. Some of BBCl & # 8217 ; s programmes are likewise produced by its rhenium & # 173 ; gional Stationss. BBC2 and the independent Channel 4 ( which has its ain company ) are both used partially for particular involvement pro & # 173 ; gms and for such things as complete operas.
By international criterions it could moderately be claimed that the four regular channels together provide an above-average service, with the balance giving something to delight most gustatory sensations and penchants. Some quiz-shows and & # 8220 ; soap operas & # 8221 ; & # 8217 ; , or long-running sagas, pull big Numberss of viewing audiences and to some ex & # 173 ; tent the BBC competes for success in this regard. But minority penchants are non overlooked. In Wales there are Welsh-language programmes for the few who want them. There are for & # 173 ; eign linguistic communication lessons for the general pubic, every bit good as the particular programmes for schools and the Open University2
. BBC intelligence has ever kept a repute for objectiveness, and the independent intelligence service is of similar quality.
Television is likely the most of import individual factor in the uninterrupted competition for the public & # 8217 ; s favor between the political parties. Parties and campaigners can non purchase advertisement clip. At intervals each channel provides clip for each of the three chief political parties for party-political broadcasts, and during an elec & # 173 ; tion run a great trade of clip is provided for parties & # 8217 ; elec & # 173 ; tion, ever on an equal footing.
Minor parties get clip, based partially on the figure of their campaigners. In Wales and Scotland the patriot parties get Television clip on the same footing as the three others. Studios and transmit & # 173 ; ters must be provided free of charge. But frequently a party prefers to movie a broadcast outside the studio at its ain disbursal, for greater impact.
BBC TV Europe broadcasts some of its ain programmes by orbiter, and from 1991 BBC TV International began to sell and administer its World Service TV intelligence in English and some other linguistic communications.
The BBC & # 8217 ; s Radio 4 is the chief general involvement wireless service, with some points run by regional studios. Radio 3 is for minority involvements, including music, & # 8220 ; 2 & # 8221 ; for light amusement, & # 8220 ; 1 & # 8221 ; for dad music and & # 8220 ; 5 & # 8221 ; for athletics, instruction and kids & # 8217 ; s programmes. There are besides several tonss local BBC wireless Stationss, covering the whole state. The universe broad wireless service has been estab & # 173 ; lished for long clip, and is the activity of the BBC to have a authorities subsidy.
The BBC runs several tonss of local wireless Stationss, which compete with independent commercial challengers, financed by adver & # 173 ; tisements. All provide a mixture of local intelligence and remark, with some amusement affair, chiefly dad music, in between. In the 1990s there should be one or more new commercial wireless Stationss airing countrywide, including one & # 8220 ; non-pop & # 8221 ; station, perchance for uninterrupted broadcasts of classical music.