Supernova In A Bottle Essay, Research Paper
Bosenova: Supernova in a Bottle
Modern physicists, like the early Grecian philosophers, speculate about the nature of affair in the existence. Physicists, nevertheless, have the advantage of being able to run for undiscovered signifiers of world with machines capable of bring forthing high vacuity, low temperature, intense monochrome visible radiation, and powerful magnetic Fieldss. All of these blunt physical properties are required for the production of a Bose-Einstein condensate ( BEC ) , the province of affair in which 1000s or 1000000s of indistinguishable atoms act as one.
The latest eccentric find in the BEC kingdom comes from the lab of Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado, where rubidium-85 atoms are confined at 3 nano-kelvin, arguably the coldest temperature of all time achieved in a lab. By somewhat modifying the magnetic Fieldss keeping the Rb atoms in their condensed signifier within the atom trap, the interaction among the atoms can be turned from mildly abhorrent to mildly attractive. The consequence is an implosion and subsequent detonation of atoms from the BEC, a sequence of actions correspondent to what happe
N in a leading supernova, albeit at an energy graduated table some 75 orders of magnitude smaller.
Wieman ( 303-492-6963 ; cwieman @ jila.colorado ) described his experiment at this hebdomad & # 8217 ; s APS meeting in Seattle. Turned to being mildly self-attractive, the Rb atoms were expected to clop together more tightly, non to detonate back outwards. The surprising nova consequence, like it & # 8217 ; s leading opposite number, leads to an outward traveling shell or collimated jets ( this & # 8220 ; puniest detonation of all time & # 8221 ; produces about 1500 atoms at an tantamount temperature of 200 nK ) and a remnant leftover. One-half of the BEC atoms seem to vanish since they are non in the leftover or the spread outing gas shell.
The fresh atomic natural philosophies behind this & # 8220 ; Bosenova & # 8221 ; phenomenon is as yet unknown. Attempts to pattern the bantam detonation, such as by saying that many of the atoms are paired into molecules, have all failed ( see the web site ) . Previously Randy Hulet of Rice University had monitored the growing and prostration of a Li BEC by adding atoms until the condensate becomes unstable, but seemingly did non mensurate an explosive outward flow of atoms ( Gerton et al. , Nature, 7 December 2000 ) .