Britain forms the greater portion of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west seashore of mainland Europe. The full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain comprises England, Scotland and Wales. With a entire country of about 242,000 sq kilometer, Britain is merely under 1000 kilometer long and some 500 kilometers across in the widest portion. London is the capital. Other major metropoliss include Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. There are some 58 million people. Population denseness is highest in England and lowest in Scotland.
Structure: a basic highland/lowland division – NW/SE.
Mountain parts include: the Scots Highlands – Ben Nevis 1343m ; the Lake District – Scafell 978 m ; North Wales – Snowdon 1085 m ; the Pennines – a limestone “ anchor ” in N. England ; the Jurassic limestone escarpments, clairvoyance. the Cotswolds ; the chalk escarpments, clairvoyance. the Chilterns, the North and South Downs ;
Niobium: the Weald, the Fens ( N. of Cambridge ) , the Broads ( E. of Norwich ) .
Climate: the clime is mutable through the seasonal rhythm. By and large, the winter months from December to February are the coldest, with the shortest hours of daytime. The temperature rises through the spring months of March to May, and is highest throughout the summer months from June to August. Temperatures seldom exceed 32 & # 176 ; C ( 90 & # 176 ; F ) or autumn below -10 & # 176 ; C ( 14 & # 176 ; F ) . London is the hottest topographic point. The conditions is chiefly influenced by depressions traveling due easts across the Atlantic. The mean one-year rainfall is more than 1,600 millimeter ( over 60 inches ) in the upland countries of the West and north but less than 800 millimeter ( 30 inches ) over the more fertile Lowlandss of the South and E.
Britain ‘s lowest air temperatures -27 & # 176 ; C was recorded at Braemar in Scotland in February 1895, whilst the highest, 37.1 & # 176 ; C, was registered at Cheltenham south-west England, in August 1990.
Wildlife: the most widespread wild flora in Bri
tain are the ling, grasses, furze and Pteridium esculentum of the moorland countryside in the, upland parts. In lowland Britain, with the exclusion of a few spots of heath and forest, farming area chiefly covers the country. Common trees include oak, beech, ash and, in Scotland, pine and birch. Wild carnal life comprises chiefly species of smaller mammals ( such as Wisconsinites, foxes and gnawers ) , birds ( over. 400 species of which have been recorded, either engendering or migrating ) and insects. There are about 30 sorts of freshwater fish. Reptiles and amphibious vehicles are few. Common and grey seals may be seen off parts of the seashore.
For many old ages Britain has had policies and Torahs to protect its natural environment – e.g. , denominating National Parks and countries of outstanding natural beauty.
Peoples: Britain absorbed a scope of foreign civilizations and traditions during the early centuries – Roman, Viking and Norman among them. In more recent times people from abroad have continued to settle in Britain, either to get away political or spiritual persecution, or in hunt of economic chances. Cultural minorities now comprise about 5. 5 % of the population. All citizens enjoy the same rights and privileges. Racial favoritism is improper under the Race Relations Act 1976.
Languages: English is the official linguistic communication, although the Welsh linguistic communication has equal cogency in Wales.
Cornish is now nonextant ( last talker died around 1800 ) ;
Welsh spoken by 25 % of entire population of Wales but in some rural countries by 75 % : still really much alive with wireless and Television programmes, newspapers and festivals ( Eisteddfod ) . Gaelic is merely spoken in rural N.W.Scotland: in contrast to Welsh, it is quickly worsening with fewer than 50,000 talkers. Local topographic point names in all these countries are based on the appropriate linguistic communication, nevertheless. Irish Gaelic ( Erse ) is instead unnaturally imposed within the instruction system. It is the natural address of merely little Numberss along the West seashore.