The Reign Of Edward VI Essay, Research Paper
The Reign of Edward VI
The reign of Edward VI saw great spiritual turbulence from a Protestant
faith that was Catholic in nature to a more clearly defined and extremist
quasi-Calvinism. In that sense spiritual policy hardened. But the policies and
ideal ne’er became profoundly entrenched and accepted throughout the state and
frequently merely existed to function the involvements of those who enacted them, and non the
future stance of the church. Under Somerset the alterations involved simply making
a Protestant face lift, and merely under Northumberland did sweeping group
alterations emerge. However, policy ne’er hardened plenty, or became recognized plenty,
to forestall it being disintegrated when Mary came to power in 1553.
The spiritual state of affairs was extremely unstable at the clip of Edward & # 8217 ; s
dominance. Although Henry had allowed Protestant tilting churchmans to rule
in the ulterior twelvemonth of his reign, most spiritual legislative acts remained Orthodox, and
conservative. But under Somerset Protestants who had antecedently fled to Europe
after the six articles, such as Hooper, Becon, and Turner, all returned. Many
were authors banned under Henry VIII, along with Luther and other European
Protestants. Guy points out that 159 out of 394 new books printed during the
Protectorate were written by Protestant reformists.
Reformers predominated the Privy council under Somerset, and reform was
popular amongst the aristocracy of the clip. But outside London and East Anglia
Protestantism was non a major force. In footings of spiritual hardening, it is
unlikely that the rush of Protestantism had any peculiar long term impact
outside these countries. It was merely in these countries that violent iconoclasm took
topographic point. Elsewhere far more moderate reforms such as common Christian bibles and
services were introduced.
The statute law of the Somerset epoch besides did small to help a definite
hardening of spiritual policy. The Privy council remained loath to do any
extremist moves. The Council, parliament, and the convocation all wanted reform,
but non of the type that would firmly thrust the state into extremist
Protestantism. Moderate propensities were all that was desired, and this was
reflected in the two major pieces of statute law, the Chantries Act and the
Treason Act, which both did small to decide doctrinal uncertainnesss. The new
book of common supplication besides trod a careful way between Protestantism and
Jordan states that? These old ages & # 8230 ; were characterised by forbearance with
the bishops, about half of whom were conservative in their positions and Catholic
in their doctrinal understandings, though all, trained as they were in the reign of
Henry VIII, lent complete support to the Act Supremacy in all its constitutional
and political deductions & # 8230 ; the lesser clergy and the temporalty were with few
exclusions under no considerable force per unit area to conform, even after the transition of
the Act set uping the first Book of Common Prayer. ?
Guy suggests that the Protestant stance was merely of all time introduced by
Somerset to advance his ain involvements. ? Although accurate figures are missing,
approximately one fifth of Londoners were Protestant by 1547 & # 8230 ; but elsewhere
Protestantism had hardly progressed. Yet London militants had a disproportionate
influence on functionary policy & # 8230 ; secret cells of? Christian brethren & # 8217 ; existed to
distribute the word ; links were forged with Lollard folds, the Protestant
book trade established & # 8230 ; Since so many of Somerset & # 8217 ; s protagonists were extremist,
he had an inducement to absorb the domination to their involvements. The danger
was that spiritual sentiment would polarize and take to civil strife ; uniformity
was the anchor of order. ?
Bush argues that due to the political motive behind reform, existent
spiritual ardor was non evident, the evident hardening Protestantism merely a
nominal gesture. ? The outstanding feature of the colony was its
moderate enforcement. Victims were comparatively few, sufferer at the interest were
non-existent, and the conservative bishops tumbled from office in any figure
merely after Somerset & # 8217 ; s fall & # 8230 ; the government surely showed a noticeable lenience
in the persecution of spiritual dissent within the context of the age. ?
Northumberland presided over moves to a far more extremist faith.
Ridley was appointed Bishop of London and Hooper Bishop of Gloucester.
Protestantism had already been hardened through philosophy and procedural alterations.
By Northumberland & # 8217 ; s autumn, Communion tabular arraies had been moved into the Centre of the
church, and 2nd new supplication book was issued in 1552. Communion no longer
resembled mass. Merely apparent excesss were allowed, and the 1553 42 articles
produced far more Protestant doctrinal alterations than had been seen before. The
new slang Bible was reinforced by the new manner of service. Besides, the
figure of priests get marrieding under the new Protestant regulation created a vested
involvement within the church for the prolongment of Protestantism. In the long
term, this doubtless helped indurate Protestant values at the grass roots degree
within the church.
Such alterations enacted a hardening of Protestantism in legislative act merely.
Throughout the state many in-between category and aristocracy resented the stricter trade name
of Protestantism, and the eroding of Catholicism.
The balance of the Privy council swung far more to a great extent to radical
reformists under Northumberland, and this is likely reflected n the hardening
of spiritual policy seen. Conservatives were rapidly driven from office.
Gairdiner was imprisoned in the Tower of London, Bishop Bonner of London was
retired and deprived of his bishopric, to be replaced by reformer Ridley.
Reformers were later installed into the dioceses of Rochester,
Chichester, Norwich, Exeter and Durham.
Parliament was recalled in January 1552 and presented with a significant
plan or spiritual reform. The new Treason Act, the Act of Uniformity, the
modification of Holy yearss to 25, the new and about Calvinist Book of Common Prayer,
the redefining of the Eucharist and a vestments ban were all introduced.
However, it is ill-defined as to whether the purpose was to procure a
hardening of Protestantism. If it was, it didn & # 8217 ; t win. At the autumn of
Northumberland Protestantism was accepted but non widely supported. In the
state Catholicism was still slightly endearing. Surely, there was small
grounds that Protestantism was increasing in popularity in the state, or any
grounds of a long term entreaty. Jordan states that: ? the push of
Northumberland & # 8217 ; s
policy had been n the way of an evangelical Protestant
party & # 8230 ; whose theological penchants were Zwinglian or Calvinistic, whose
position of religion and worship displayed no nostalgia whatever for the ancient church,
and whose rule involvement it was that all staying Roman endurances be swept
off and that a pure, an immaculate, Protestantism be smartly preached and
enforced throughout the realm. ? That is what Northumberland preached, but it
besides poses important doctrinal jobs. Calvinism and Zwinglism were
per se different and could non be merged into some Protestant cocktail,
yet Northumberland allowed both positions to rule. And more alarmingly, as
Jordan reveals, ? Northumberland died in 1553 a professed and a communication
Roman Catholic, doing the astonishing statement that his understandings had been
in secret Catholic during the whole of the Edwardian epoch. ?
The authorities & # 8217 ; s subsequent plundering of church wealth therefore
nowadayss a more likely inducement for spiritual ardor. In 1552 an exhaustive
study of church wealth was conducted, gauging a entire value of over? 1m.
Northumberland so attacked the church to derive control of every bit much of this
wealth as possible. For illustration the Bishopric of Durham was halved, stock lists
of gold and Ag home base were conducted and removed.
There is nevertheless, much grounds that Protestant spiritual policy was
hardened during Edward & # 8217 ; s reign. In 1547 Somerset succeeded in doing Parliament
license Communion of both sorts, and to revoke the unorthodoxy Torahs, including the Act
of Six Articles. The new Injunctions besides strengthened the Protestant stance of
the church.In 1549 the new Protestant supplication book merged traditional Catholic
ideal with more extremist Lutheran impressions, and by the clip of the supplication book of
1552 Protestantism was even more apparent. Priests were later allowed to
marry. The new supplication book was declared a monopoly, all old edition were
ordered to be destroyed. A new ordination rite was created that denied the full
priesthood to curates. Mass was reduced to little more than a nominal process
and church monasteries and chapels were all dissolved during Edward & # 8217 ; s reign. The
supplication book of 1552 was enforced by a new Act of Uniformity and the Forty Two
Articles of 1553. At this phase spiritual policy had been hardened in that there
was a distinguishable policy & # 8211 ; the state was officially Protestant, in philosophy and
in jurisprudence. Previously there had been no such clear policy and the state as a
whole had non known definitively where it stood.
Merely the visual aspects were get downing to alter well. Catholic
spiritual groups, chantries, educational constitutions such as chantry schools
seemed to stay untasted, except for their now increasing Protestant instruction.
Such was the hardening of Protestantism in England, moderate Lutheran
influences had given manner to the more extremist church-state ideals of Calvin and
Zwingli by the terminal of the reign, ideals that would ne’er hold been tolerated
under Henry VIII.
Devils suggests this led to the? reorientation from the Saxon to the
Swiss accent going decisive. ? He continues, claiming, ? when Cranmer sought
to name a conference to unite European Protestants he was rebuffed by the
sterile Lutherans. On the other manus, 1000s of spiritual refugees, the
great bulk of them owing no direct commitment to Luther & # 8217 ; s Wittenburg, came
to settle in England. Martin Bucer and several other high foreign theologists
occupied cardinal stations in the universities, while the great company of aliens in
London were given the Austin Friars and at that place allowed by Cranmer to organize
their folds along Swiss lines. ?
One manner in which spiritual policy was arguably hardened was the manner in
which personal domination was undermined. Elton claims that? in the first topographic point,
the Edwardian Acts of Uniformity went a long manner towards resting the Holy Eucharist and
ceremony of the church on the authorization of Parliament ; the 2nd act could
speak of the first Prayer Book as a? really godly order set Forth by authorization of
Parliament & # 8217 ; and the 2nd as annexed to the act. Alternatively of simply implementing,
by punishments, personal edict of the supreme caput, Parliament therefore to the full
participated in the ultimate exercising of his power, the definition of true religion.
It could be argued that the hardened spiritual place was non a consequence
of Protestantism but merely to beef up the power of cabals at tribunal. Loades
suggest: ? the Edwardian church was every spot as much an instrument of authorities
propaganda as that of Henry had been. Sermons, preachments and exhortation of every
sort urged the sacred responsibility of obeisance to the Prince, terming rebellion? .
..the puddle and sink of all wickednesss against God and man. & # 8217 ; So obvious was the
confederation of convenience between the Protestant Godheads and the layman
politicians that the conservative regarded the reserves of the former with
pardonable intuition & # 8230 ; the earnestness and spiritual strong belief which really
inspired them became apparent merely when political power had been stripped off. ?
In decision, the reign of Edward VI did see a hardening of spiritual
policy in that such policy was clearly defined. Protestant ideals and thoughts were
strengthened, but non needfully for devotional or theological motivations. The key
supporter of extremist alteration, Northumberland, still proclaimed his Catholisism
on his death-bed. Besides, the state as a whole did non see Protestantism as a
great spiritual promotion, and merely in London and East Anglia can local degree
spiritual policy be said to hold hardened. Another factor is that none of the
spiritual policy became firm or hardened to the extent that it could non be
brush off even more rapidly than it had been enacted.
Guy, J. Tudor England, Oxford ( 1988 ) , p203
Jordan. W, Edward VI, the Threshold of Power, George Allen & A ; Unwin 1970, p240.
Guy. J, Tudor England, Oxford 1988, p 204.
Bush M. , The Government Policy of Protector Somerset, Arnold 1975, p101.
Jordan. W, Edward VI, the Threshold of Power, George Allen and Unwin 1970,
Jordan. W, Edward VI, the Threshold of Power, George Allen and Unwin 1970,
Dickens. A.G. , The Reformation Crisis, Ed Joel Hurstfield, Edward Arnold 1965,
Elton. G.R. , The Tudor Constitution, Cambridge 1962, p335.
Loades. D, Politics and the Nation, Fontana 1980, p200
? The reign of Edward VI saw a definite hardening of spiritual policy. ? Do you