Secondary research has highlighted that the UK economic system has an ageing population ( Office for national statistics, 2009 ) : this therefore has a direct effect for those concerns in the health care sector both private and public and, as such this is highlighted as a peculiar country of growing. An ageing population will hold a direct consequence on wellness attention and, as such this sector is likely to see high degrees of growing as more and more is spent on health care. Second, the sector of communications has been noted as being a peculiarly strong sector over the past decennary and most notably through a hard recession. With an increasing sum of invention in both nomadic devices and services and, an increasing sum of demand from emerging economic systems, the communications sector is poised for strong growing. Largely, it is IT sectors which are sing rapid growing, mostly due to inventions in engineering and ‘technological spillovers ‘ gained from houses puting in the UK through foreign direct investing. In add-on as houses become progressively ‘globalised ‘ there is an increasing demand for advanced communicating services to do concern go on across economic systems, for illustration ; an addition in houses utilizing picture conferencing to carry on concern overseas. The concluding sector projected for growing is the nutrient and drink sector. The UK is noted as holding one of the ‘fastest turning nutrient and drink markets in the universe ‘ ( UK trade and investing, 2009 ) . Presently, the UK nutrient and drink sector produces gross revenues to the extent of 70 billion and employs over 500,000. More specifically the market for cereal is set for growing during the period 2010-2015. The growing in this sector is mostly fuelled by inventions in chemical science and nanotechnology which is driving new, advanced merchandises in the nutrient and drink sector.
Despite the turning sectors listed supra, there are sectors which are presently in diminution in the UK. Secondary research has highlighted that the three biggest sectors presently confronting diminution and projected to see diminution are: agribusiness, excavation and fabrication. Agribusiness in the UK is confronting peculiar troubles ( see appendix 2 ) . Despite huge sums of investing from the UK authorities, the agriculture industry is in terrible diminution and agrarian income has reduced by 50 % in five old ages. In the last two old ages entirely 2/3 of UK husbandmans have quit and it seems this tendency will go on to turn and therefore it is unadvisable for enterprisers to come in this sector ( Food and agribusiness research, 2008 ) . Second, a steady diminution in fabrication ( Hine and Wright, 1998 ) in the UK is fuelled by companies outsourcing production and traveling fabrication workss abroad in hunt of lower labor and land costs. The UK economic system has steadily seen a displacement from a predominately fabricating based economic system to one which is focused on services. The UK economic system is unable to vie with the low labor costs of those in developing states and therefore many UK houses are maintaining costs low and net incomes high. This therefore provides a justification as to why any fabrication based concern would be badly advised. Furthermore, research has highlighted that the excavation sector within the UK is in diminution. The UK trade and investing squad have noted this as a sector which is presently in diminution. In recent decennaries at that place has been a rapid diminution in this sector. Since the 1980s there has been a diminution peculiarly in coal excavation. Although quarrying is still turn outing profitable it appears this is a sector which could confront increasing problem in the hereafter.
1.2. Chinese market those industries in diminution and those in dominance.
Decline ( NB really few due to high rising prices )
Alcoholic drinks ( Beer )
Communicationss ( Euromonitor, 2010 ) .
Health ( Euromonitor, 2010 )
subdivision 2.0 industry construction and market topographic point information
Harmonizing to the BRICS survey Brazil, Russia, India and China are predicted to be cardinal participants in the planetary economic system by 2050 with China being set to be the universe ‘s economic world power by every bit shortly as 2020. Therefore, the Chinese market offers an tremendous chance for enterprisers. In peculiar, as shown above the alcoholic drinks market is sing high degrees of growing, peculiarly those taking at a high terminal market. This is mostly fuelled by a deregulated market, increasing consumer disbursement and a alteration in societal attitudes. I would therefore rede an enterpriser to see come ining the local beer market in China where high degrees of growing are being experienced and it looks set to be a extremely profitable market for those who move in carefully. Once the enterpriser has entered the Chinese market there may be chances to utilize learnt cognition to come in the UK nutrient and drink sector which as shown is besides in dominance.
2.1 size and cleavage of the industry
Table one: beer gross revenues in China 2000-2005. Note estimated 31hl by 2010 ( Pavlovic, 2006 )
Bn hectoliter ( hectoliters, 1 hectoliter =1000litres )
2.2 basic industry statistics
In footings of volume China is the words largest market for beer gross revenues, nevertheless the market is still under penetrated due to its per capita ingestion being low compared to the US and Europe. Therefore, the Chinese market offers great growing chances. Lager beer is the biggest sector and in 2005 it accounted for 81 % of all alcoholic drinks sold in China. Postpone one highlights the increasing tendency of beer gross revenues in China and emphasises the promising possible the Chinese market may keep for a possible enterpriser. Chinas beer market is projected to turn at a rate of 6 ” to 8 % , a astonishing sum of growing when compared to developed markets which are turning at around 1-2 % ( Fitzpatrick, 2004 ) . As a consequence nevertheless, China has seen a rush in foreign investors come ining the Chinese market which is increasing competition.
2.3 Customers and clients
The market can be segmented by age, gender and part:
Females: this group is going progressively of import due to increasing degrees of disposable income. Presently, work forces consume more beer than adult females nevertheless the female market offers an chance to tap into a market which is comparatively un-catered for. Female consumers can be farther segmented into two groups.
AGE 16-24 females drink at cabarets and saloons, driving by trade name image. 30-50 twelvemonth olds predominately drink at formal occasions and whilst dining.
Geographic Region: There are three metropolitan countries where the largest sum of beer is consumed by females: Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The highest per centum, 40 % of all Beijing beer drinkers are female and therefore this part provides the greatest chance. The demands of this group are light beers, and, an increasing tendency towards low Calories, low sugar and low intoxicant content.
subdivision 3.0 factors impacting the industry
3.1 Life rhythm place: China ‘s beer market is in the growing phase of the merchandise life rhythm.
3.2 Competition: see table below.
Direct Competitors Tsingtao, 2 types of premium beer: Tsingtao laager and Tsingtao pure bill of exchange. Both quoted as being ‘stylish beers ‘ .In add-on, local beers: Tsingtao dark beer, Tsingtao spirulina green beer – claimed to advance good wellness.
Low Calorie Tsingtao huan dong launched in 2007, and snow bei shuang April 2008 – low sugar and alimentary. Snow is one of two breweries in China to hold national distribution ( Economist intelligence unit, 2007 ) .
Budweiser, 47 % premium market portion ( Theodore, 2008 ) .
Woodpecker Cider sold predominately in Peking and Shanghai at premium locations, priced at 10yuan, 3 times the monetary value of local Chinese beer ( Rowe, 2000 ) . Cider is going progressively popular in China.
Soft drinks: options to beer.
Wine/vodka based alcoholic drinks.
3.3 Barriers to entry
The menace of new entrants: Beer is comparatively simple to bring forth, international rivals: the Chinese market is seeing an increasing sum of foreign houses come ining the Chinese beer industry. High cost of distribution web and substructure therefore taking to high entry costs. Increased consolidation between houses, coup d’etats and amalgamations are prevailing in the industry amongst little local beer makers acquired by taking makers e.g. China resources acquired Anhui Shengli brewery ( Euromonitor, 2009 ) . Global trade names may coerce smaller breweries out of market due to an advantage of greater advertisement power and larger marketing budgets. Ever altering consumer demands and alterations in engineering could ensue in more range for new entrants to offer something different in the market.
The power of providers: Increased cost of natural stuffs, economic systems of scale addition volume and cut down costs.
The power of purchasers: Customers have increasing altering gustatory sensations, and, in a recession increasing monetary value sensitiveness which could harm a premium trade name. Beer is readily available and there are assorted beginnings of supply, hence, any new company would necessitate to work on retaining clients and increasing trade name trueness. Multiple client demands and penchants ( Slocum et al, 2006 ) .
The menace of replacements: alteration in societal wonts, increased accent on cutting back on imbibing to take a healthier life style. Changing imbibing environment, north China traveling off from imbibing in cabarets to imbibing at place. However, this could supply an chance to tap into a niche market of lower Calorie, flavoured beer.
Rivalry amongst bing houses: increased atomization and variegation, bulk of houses are little to medium sized breweries, 4 big breweries hold merely 45 % of market portion, therefore, increased competition between smaller houses. Established houses face market portion loss ( Slocum et al, 2006 ) .
3.4 PEST analysis
Political ( Government ordinances and political factors )
System: “ One state, two systems ” , China retains a socialist system whilst Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan have separate capitalist systems
STABIITY: province breakability index ranked China chair on a graduated table of extreme to moo. Major political agitation affecting the Uyghur people, population of 11.7million.
Policies: Favorable FDI policies, by and large welcoming of inward FDI. Government funding the development of mid China, through substructure such as airdromes.
2 ten policies: Develop Chinas West at full blast, and scheme of resuscitating rusty industrial bases.
Regulation: Age enforcement limitations of intoxicant ingestion in China, no sale to under 18s. Severe drink driving ordinances, for comparing in the UK if convicted of killing person through unsafe drive you would acquire 8years imprisonment, in China it is the decease punishment.
Television advertizement clip for alcoholic drinks is restricted ( Fam et al, 2008 )
Interest rate 5.31 % .Asset monetary values soar yet retail monetary values unaffected.
Unstable Inflation rate presently standing at 5.90 % ( CIA World fact book, 2009 ) .
BRICS survey predicts by 2050, China will go the words largest market.
Economic growing switching towards inland states which now account for 35 % of entire growing and are stated as turning at a 9.8 % growing rate compared to coastal part growing of 7.7 % .
Beijing and Shanghai score highest in footings of: economic system, market chances, environment and substructure ( Economist intelligence unit, 2009 ) .
Largest sum of FDI influx of all developing states
Member of universe trade administration since 2001, hence profoundly incorporate into planetary economic system ( Pan et Al, 2006 ) .
Cost additions hit Chinas beer industry, increasing production and conveyance costs.
Religion: Dominant faiths are Buddhism and Taoism nevertheless, it is of import to observe that China has several sub faiths lifting in popularity: Muslim 15 million, Christianity, 10million, and other local, traditional faiths. Overall, a extremely spiritual environment.
ATTITUDES TO FOREIGN PRODUCTS ( Wong and Zhoi, 2005 ) . Study highlighted Chinese consumers ( 18-34 ) have three underlying buying motivations when buying foreign merchandises, “ higher perceived prestigiousness, higher perceived quality and higher perceived value ” ( Wong and Zhoi, 2005 p. 2 ) . It is suggested that consumers prefer foreign trade names due to comprehend prestigiousness, moreover, foreign trade names have a higher monetary value compared to local trade names ( Batra et al, 2000 ) which enhances a consumers self image of being “ cosmopolite, sophisticated and modern ” ) . Percepts of the above provide intangible value to Chinese consumers. However it is of import to observe that certain parts of China are now demoing a displacement off from foreign merchandises to local trade names ( Zhou, and Hui, 2003 ) .
Rise of low Calories, low intoxicant content beers. China is a wellness painstaking state. Predominately lager, bitters and stouts do non make good in the Chinese market ( Euromonitor, 2009 )
Technology and recent developments
Technology plays a comparatively minor function in the industry compared to other factors.
Proprietary engineering: allows aluminium beer bottles to remain colder longer, take the temperature to below stop deading without turning the drink to ice.
Use of more efficient hops, hop storage equipment to let breweries to derive the maximal spirit from hops. Such extremely efficient hop farms are located in North West China where optimum conditions provide optimum hops
subdivision 4.0 FINANCIAL Information
Gross saless tendencies: as noted above there has been an increasing tendency in low Calorie laagers and flavoured beers fuelled by altering consumer gustatory sensations and increasing wealth of immature females in China.
Cost of operations: money to be raised from private investing estimated cost to adhere to an estimated ?2million, nevertheless, this is merely an estimation as existent costs can non be derived from market information.
Expected Gross: The enterpriser will hold to prolong comparatively low profitableness for up to 5years. Over clip the house can concentrate on graduated tables of range to increase market portion, traveling from Shanghai, foremost to Beijing and so Guangzhou, this is a extremely profitable market but must be entered easy.
subdivision 5.0 KEY FACTORS FOR SUCESS
Critical Issues: In order for an enterpriser to be successful in the Chinese beer market they must orient the selling mix. China is a hard market to tap into due to mass atomization and therefore, any enterpriser should be advised to aim smaller, local markets through local distribution webs. In order to make this, the selling mix should hold a strong local focal point as in many of China ‘s rural parts it is typical for consumer to hold established, strong and peculiar gustatory sensations when it comes to beer. As a concluding note I would rede the enterpriser to follow these facets of the selling mix.
subdivision 6.0 OVERVIEW USING THE MARKETING MIX
British beer with a modern turn. Premium and different to anything else designed with Chinese consumers in head. State of beginning as a trade name component, perceptual experiences towards the UK will widen to the merchandise and as noted by Keegan and Green ( 2003 p 415 ) is “ peculiarly true for beer ” . Therefore, a critical portion of the trade names placement will be to advance the brutishness of the merchandise.
Merchandise: Modified merchandise, low Calorie, less sugar light beer, packaged in a stylish and eco friendly manner. Reviewing light laager with an ABV of 3.5 % . New spirits, for illustration lemon and sweet calcium hydroxide so diversify to other spirits. The usage of high quality ingredients is overriding and there is an increasing tendency to utilize organic merchandises which the enterpriser should research.
Topographic point: interior metropolis cabarets, stylish eating houses, image is cardinal ; the merchandise must be merely placed in up market locations in order to heighten sensed quality and scarceness associated with a higher monetary value. Shanghai is an ideal location due to its trendy and up market eating houses and bars eating houses such as Bund 18 will be targeted to guarantee the trade name is associated with high quality.
Promotion: Sponsor high terminal manner shows in Shanghai in order to advance trade name image. Gross saless publicity: competitions to win shopping trips.
Price ( Doole and Lowe, 1999 ) : Premium monetary value justified by quality of merchandise. Purpose of taging the monetary value 25 % above local premium trade names in order to heighten thought of sensed quality and scarceness associated with foreign trade names. In entire, the trade name will be 60 % above the monetary value of mass produced, non premium beers.
Distribution Networks Highly selective on trade distribution merely ( i.e. bars and nines ) . High quality service at all times, clean, fashionable spectacless and bars trained to sell the merchandise to females looking to seek something new. Local distribution is cardinal, aim a series of metropoliss instead than the whole state.
subdivision 7.0 methodological analysis and premises
All informations collected has been collected from secondary beginnings including Euromonitor and the economic expert intelligence unit. Those sectors noted as in dominance are either in growing or predicted to see growing in the following few old ages. It must be noted that the current economic downswing may hold played a important portion in the death of those sectors listed under diminution. The premise of markets staying dead whilst the enterpriser decides has been made, this nevertheless is non the instance as markets are dynamic and hence this information may alter. In add-on the usage of both porters five forces and the competitory analysis are both dead steps and an overview of the competition should once more be reviewed when doing a determination.
subdivision 8.0 bibliography
CIA universe fact book ( 2009 ) “ Economy: China ” [ online ] Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html [ Accessed 15/02/10, 2009 ]
Cochrane, J, Chen, H, Conigrave, K, Hao, W ( 2003 ) “ Alcohol usage in China ” . Journal of intoxicant and alcohol addiction, 38 ( 6 ) pp. 537-542
Cui, G, Q. Liu ( 2000 ) “ Regional market sections of China: chances and barriers in an emerging economic system ” . Journal of consumer selling, 17 ( 1 ) pp.55-72.
Doole I, R. Lowe ( 1999 ) “ International selling scheme ” . Thomson Business Press: London.
Economist Intelligence Unit ( 2007 ) “ White storm brewing ” Business China.
Economist Intelligence Unit ( 2009 ) “ Business China ” [ online ] Available hypertext transfer protocol: //store.eiu.com/product/1740000174-sample.html [ Accessed 15/02/10 ] .
Euromonitor ( 2010 ) ‘Consumer life styles – Hong Kong, China: competition in communications merchandises fuels consumer outgo ‘ [ online ] Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/magazines/geographiesheavy.aspx [ Accessed 15/02/10 ] .
Euromonitor, ( 2010 ) ‘Reshaping consumer wellness in Asia ‘ [ online ] . Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/resultslist.asapx [ Accessed 15/02/10 ] .
Fam, S.K, Waller, D.S, Yang, Z ( 2008 ) “ Addressing the advertisement of controversial merchandises in China: an empirical attack. Journal of concern moralss, 88, pp 43-58.
Food and agribusiness research ( 2008 ) ‘The UK farming crisis ‘ [ online ] . Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.corporatewatch.org/ ? lid=2629 [ Accessed 14/02/10 ] .
Hao, W. , & A ; Young, D. ( 2000 ) . Drinking form and jobs in China. Journal of Substance Use, 5 ( 1 ) , 71a?’78.
Hine, R.C, Wright, P.W ( 1998 ) ‘Trade with low pay economic systems, employment and productiveness in uk fabrication ‘ . The economic diary, 108 ( 450 ) pp1500-1510.
Hooley, G, Piercy, N.F, Nicoulaud, B ( 2008 ) “ Marketing scheme and competitory placement. Pearson Education Ltd: Essex. Pp73-77
Keegan, W.J Green M.C. ( 2003 ) . Merchandise and trade name determinations. In: Keegan, W.J Green M.C Global selling. New Jersey: Pearson Education Ltd. 399-444.
Office for national statistics, ( 2009 ) ‘Aging: fastest addition in the oldest old ‘ [ online ] Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? ID=949 [ Accessed 14/02/10 ] .
Pan, S, Fang, C, Malaga, J ( 2006 ) “ Alcoholic drink ingestion in China: a censored demand system attack ” . Applied economics letters, 13, pp 975-979.
Porter, M.E ( 1998 ) “ On competition ” . Harvard Business School publication: USA.
Rowe ( 2000 ) . “ Britons give China a gustatory sensation for cyder ” . The independent online, [ cyberspace ] 16 April. Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/britons-give-china-a-taste-for-cider-721154.html [ Accessed 15/02/10 ]
Slocum, J, Conder, W, Corradini, E, Foster, R, Frazer, R, Lei, vitamin D, McGuire, M, Ross, J, Scott, S ( 2006 ) “ Fermentation in the Chinese beer industry ” . Organisational kineticss, 35 ( 1 ) pp32-48.
Theodore, S ( 2008 ) “ Beer has large alterations on pat ” [ on-line ] . Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bevindustry.com/Articles/Cover_Story/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000427113 [ Accessed 5/02/10 ] .
UK trade and investing squad ( 2009 ) ‘UK nutrient and drink sector chances ‘ [ online ] . Available from: –
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ukinvest.gov.uk/Food- & A ; -drink/en-GB-list.html [ Accessed 14/02/10 ] .
Zhoi, L, Hui, M.K ( 2003 ) “ Symbolic value of foreign merchandises in the people ‘s democracy of China ” . Journal of international selling, 11 ( 2 ) pp.36-56.
APPENDIX 1 AND 2
GRAPH REFLECTING THE AGEING POPULATION IN THE UK AND GRAPH SHOWING THE DECLINE IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR.