Harmonizing to Verstraete and Jouison-Laffitte ( 2011 ) , the look Business Model is a buzz term. Indeed, it has been mostly used and spread in our economic environment. The literature research on Business theoretical accounts had shown a broad diverseness in the usage and definitions of the term. We will seek to show a reappraisal, foremost of all to clear up the construct which generates a fuzzed environment due to the immense sum of academic publications refering this subject. Timmers ( 1998 ) , Amit & A ; Zott ( 2001 ) and Magretta ( 2002 ) are the most cited writers on the literature.
Timmers ‘ work is the first academic publication on this subject ; this is likely why it is so popular.
This term became manner, since the outgrowth of the new engineerings in the late 90 ‘s. This construct was chiefly used to measure up new IT companies which the manner they were doing net income was non really apprehensible. The rise of the BM impression is besides explained by technological, economical and regulative alterations which had a immense impact on the IT sphere ( Redis, 2009 ) .
What is a Business Model?
The literature is full of information about this subject, written by journalists, concern people faculty members etcaˆ¦ but the construct of Business Model is still non really understood and a batch of divergent information can be found on this research country ( Linder and Cantrell, 2000 ) .
Osterwalder ( 2004 ) considers that writers use an uncomplete attack which consequences in a disparity of construct. Some of them talk about the Business Model sing merely the gross coevals facet and others are concentrating more on the value concatenation.
This is done by a silent manner, so we are sometimes baffled and it seems they are non composing about the same topic.
The Porter ‘s value concatenation construct is frequently used to warrant the applicability of the Business Model but he refuses to accept this “ new ” construct. He criticised the construct on its deficiency of clear definition. It is excessively reducer for him and does n’t take adequate strategic parametric quantities ( Porter, 2001 ) .
The term Business Model is widely used merely since few old ages and seems to be a immature phenomenon but in fact the first usage of this look appeared in an academic publication ( Bellman and Clark, 1957 ) .
But in fact, the first Business Model emerged in the early 20th century but was n’t named like that. It was called ‘the theoretical account of blades and razor ‘ .
The rule was to sell a merchandise at a really low cost, sometimes even losing money so bear down really high amounts for the purchase of refills or any complementary merchandises or services ( Lichy and Kachour, 2013 ) .
Many illustrations exist such as nomadic phones and bundles, pressmans and consumables ( cartridges etc ) . A discrepancy of this theoretical account is the company that offers free package to read the files in a certain format and bill package that lets you create files in this format.
In the 1950s, new theoretical accounts appear with companies such as McDonald ‘s and Toyota.
In the 1970s, invention comes from supermarkets ( Wal-Mart in the United States and Carrefour or Auchan in France ) .
In the 1980s, it was Blockbuster, Intel and Dell, and in the 1990s, Southwest Airlines, Starbucks and Amazon.com.
Overview of academic definitions
Harmonizing to Fayolle ( 2012 ) , the BM is a beginning of inspiration and a thought-provoking, which helps directors in their determination procedure. It orients the action and the behavior.
For Lequeux and Saadoun ( 2008 ) , it is the determination of a company to bring forth net income.
“ A concern theoretical account consists of four meshing elements that, taken together, create and present value. The most of import to acquire right, by far, is the first: -Customer Value Proposition -Profit expression -Key processes -Key resources ” ( Johnson et al, 2008 ) .
“ A concern theoretical account reveals the content and construction of minutess designed so as to make value via the development of concern chances. ” ( Amit and Zott, 2001 ) .
“ We characterize the concern theoretical account of a company as a system manifested in the elements and related stuff and cognitive facets. Cardinal constituents of the concern theoretical account include the company ‘s web of relationships, operations embodied in the company ‘s concern procedures and resource base, and the finance and accounting constructs of the company. ” ( Tikkanen et al, 2005 ) .
Hedman and Kalling ( 2001 ) noticed that BM was frequently used to depict the basicss constituent of an activity. The manner the term is employed in company goes in that way.
Indeed, when houses describe their BM, they frequently merely speak about their merchandises and the definition of their offer.
Definitions of Timmers ( 1998 ) , Amit & A ; Zott ( 2001 ) and Magretta ( 2002 ) ) articulate the undermentioned elements: architecture and supply resources implemented the value proposition for the client, the company ‘s place in the value web, the gross theoretical account.
For Afuah and Tucci ( 2001 ) , the BM is what allows companies to hold a sustainable competitory advantage to make better than their rivals in the long-run.
Rappa ( 2000 ) suggests sorting Business Models into 10 different types:
Roles of Business Models
Beyond the apprehension of the BM, writers are concerned about how the concern theoretical account could be used, particularly by companies.
The BM is assigned different functions and its importance makes it a construct whose
handling can be every bit profitable as hazardous. The literature besides points, in a dynamic position, the importance for companies to plan good BM and to cognize how to alter them, depending on the market development.
To happen a good and appropriate Business Model has a positive consequence on the public presentation, but this public presentation can transport on if the company knows how to modify it. A inactive construct of the BM is a serious error from companies ( Linder and Cantrell, 2001 ) .
Coming back to the narrative of the American Express creative activity, Magretta ( 2002 ) shows the success of this BM. It was a better payment option than bing solutions for travellers.
Therefore, developing a BM returns to “ compose a new narrative, ” a narrative of how the company works. This narrative, if it is similar to other older ways of making concern can separate two degrees. It can either plan a solution to suit a demand still unmet, or to conceive of a new manner of doing, selling or administering an offer already established.
As such, the BM allows to understand, gaining control, visualise the logic of a concern,
to do sense and cut down ambiguity ( Osterwalder, 2004 ) .
For Chesbrough ( 2003 ) , the most of import function of BM is to make a simplified cognitive map of the proficient field for inputs ( proficient directors ) and societal field for end products ( selling directors ) .
In recent surveies, Chesbrough and Schwartz ( 2007 ) questioned specifically the function of BM in new concern partnerships. By exemplifying their comments by illustrations of the concern universe ( Millenium Pharmaceuticals, Go, P & A ; G… ) , they show that to specify and implement collaborative undertakings, there are four stairss.
First of wholly, we must inquire ourselves the aims targeted in the coaction.
These aims can be to increase profitableness, cut down time-to-market, conveying out the invention capacity, making a better flexibleness in research and development ( R & A ; D ) . It must so, harmonizing to them, find the capacity and if the capacity in R & A ; D fundamental, critical and contextual. The alliance of the BM ‘s spouses is besides to analyze. It is the pledge of the complementarities of the spouses involved in co-development. The last measure is to expect future coactions in order to decently pull off the relationship because we should non remain focused merely on the current partnership. If all seems consistent Chesbrough does non explicate whether the stairss he proposes are from his ain observation of successful partnerships or if he has been able to look into the effectivity of the attack in an empirical survey.
We may repent this deficiency of justification.
Another cardinal function is to delegate the BM. Because it is besides destined to be communicated, the BM is required to back up the strong beliefs of concerns ( enterprisers or directors ) , assisting them to do understand the logic of their concern.
It can be used in peculiar to convert investors and can assist prospecting and more by and large all the subscribers or resource holders ( Verstraete and Jouison, 2007 ) .
The Business Model has besides a function of an analyzing tool, by support to taking determination procedure. Furthermore, Morris et Al ( 2005 ) sees the BM as a usher to carry on companies ‘ activities. It can supply some parametric quantities to find if the different strategic actions are appropriated.
The construct of the Business Model
Approachs of the Business Model
D’un point de vue managerial, le construct de BM apparait egalement comme une beginning de creativite interessante. D’une portion, forty-nine pousse celui qui lupus erythematosus mobilise a sortir diethylstilbestrols evidences de son secteur et a envisager toutes les beginnings potentielles de revenus ou lupus erythematosuss nouvelles facons de repartir la valeur a partir du deploiement de Ses ressources actuelles. Par exemple, les stakeholders d’une entreprise sont souvent consideres comme donnes. Or, c’est lupus erythematosus BM qui determine largement quels acteurs jouent un role cardinal pour l’entreprise.
Gross theoretical account
The Business Model of company can besides be seen as a generated gross method.
It ‘s a manner for the company to do net income and to cover with economic histrions ( Rappa, 2000 ) .
Alt and Zimmermann ( 2001 ) underscores that BM are linked to the picks of the company to bring forth grosss. These picks are chiefly the investings the house has to make.
Sing the income as a end of the Business Models, writers insert a temporal dimension. In other words, it is non plenty to bring forth grosss, they have to be a long-run involvement, and hence, the company is maintained thanks to them.
The grosss ‘ coevals comes from different beginnings for the company, but the chief 1 is the clients. These grosss come from the merchandises and/or services the company provides on the market. The offer is chiefly for the clients whom accept to pay for it because it is something valuable for them. But companies do non make value merely for their clients but besides for all the stakeholders ( Chesbrough, 2007 ) .
Value creative activity
In most of the construct found on the literature, the value impression is likely the most of import. Create, generate, gaining control, portion are some verbs which are associate with this impression in the literature. The Business Model focuses more on the exchange of the value ; it does non count if it is generated or captured.
The logic nucleus of value creative activity is the kernel of the BM ( Timmers, 1998 ) .
Introduce some flexibleness in the BM from the design is the proposal proposed by Chesbrough ( 2003 ) . For this writer, set up a BM as mutable in their design is an invention in itself. The BM helps to make and capture more value in advancing the generation of new thoughts. Advanced companies must take proficient determinations on the designation of losing elements- internal or external – leting them to deploy new thoughts from intern or extern research ( Chesbrough, 2003 ) .
However, all writers agree to set, the creative activity of value for the company itself, at the Centre of the BM construct. Second of all, the value is for the clients and for all the stakeholders.
Value for clients
Morris et Al ( 2005 ) describes the different elements that have to be taken into history: the nature and the size of the market in which the company will vie.
They besides mentioned its topographic point in the value concatenation and the features of its clients ( B2B and B2C ) .
Harmonizing to Morris et Al ( 2005 ) , the BM allows to understand how the company will distinguish its offer which will be perceived as unique on the market.
This will be possible by how the company will utilize its basicss competences to make his ain value. This is why directors have to place cardinal differences that the company is able to keep on the long-run.
Surveies on trueness show that clients need to comprehend on merchandises and/or services, a different value from a company, he will go loyal ( Trinquecoste, 1996 ) .
Value for stakeholders
The offer allows bring forthing a flow of grosss for the company thanks to the value created for the clients but besides for investors, employees, providers, stockholders etcaˆ¦ ( Amit and Zott, 2001 ) .
Many other writers integrate to their work on the BM the designation of stakeholders in the procedure of value creative activity.
Morris et Al ( 2005 ) , considers that the value is non making for but by the stakeholders ( providers and concern spouses ) .
Verstraete and Jouison ( 2007 ) besides adopt the stakeholders as the creative activity of value but integrate the stockholders, investors and Bankss to this term.
To obtain from them the resources the company is looking for, directors will hold to demo them the BM is good structured and will let them to derive a portion of the value created.
Value for e-business companies
Many writers agree to see that the Business Model allows nearing the creative activity of value in e-business companies.
Value creative activity of e-business exceeds the value which can be achieved across the value concatenation, the edifice of strategic webs between concern or operation of specific nucleus competences. These companies innovate through new mechanisms and new exchange dealing constructions absent from more traditional concerns. Two consequences emerge from the survey of Amit and Zott ( 2001 ) .
First, four possible beginnings of value are present in e-business such as the efficiency of dealing synergisms ( all goods produces more value than the amount of the value of each single plus ) , the gaining control ( client battle in perennial minutess ) and the freshness ( New merchandises / services, new methods of production, selling, new ways of making concern that is to state, in the construction of minutess ) .
Then it appears an mutuality between these beginnings of value, the presence of each beginning can increase the efficiency of others. The dealing or exchange of value is an analysis unit that integrates the assorted values beginnings identified.
Transaction content concerned goods or information exchanged, therefore resources and capacity to enable the exchange. The construction of the dealing refers to involved parties in the dealing and the links between them. It besides includes the order in which exchanges take topographic point and the mechanism adopted that allows minutess. Administration of the dealing refers to command by different parts of the flow of information, resources and belongings. It besides relates to the signifier the company ‘s legal and incentive systems to set in topographic point for participants minutess ( Osterwalder et al. 2005 ) . The BM can better the measuring, observation and comparing of the logic concern of a company.
Business Model and Strategy
There is frequently confusion between these two footings and companies use these constructs without cognizing the differences. A company has a alone scheme because this is how the house is anchored in the competitory context but many different Business Models can be defined. This is besides why several companies can utilize the same BM.
Shafer et Al. ( 2005 ) and other writers consider the Business Model as the implementation of the company scheme. The chief difference for them is the operational dimension of the BM which is n’t encountered in the strategic construct.
On the other manus, believing in footings of BM can be seen as a possible beginning of strategic failure in a sector. Therefore, the BM of Dell, in the computing machine industry has created a strategic interruption that allowed the company to go the Personal computer maker leader. Indeed, avoiding the usage of traditional retail merchants, Dell has modified the distribution of income to his advantage ( Amit & A ; Zott, 2001 ) .
In the strategic facet, the client value is really of import and Porter ( 1999 ) tells that this value is born by the influence of the value concatenation of a company on its clients.
For the clients, this influence allows them to cut down their costs and to increase their public presentation. Still for this writer, the client value is a factor of distinction on the market.
The value concatenation allows the analysis of the competitory advantage which can be seen under three elements: advantage by costs, distinction and invention.
But the BM is less preoccupied by the competitory advantage so the scheme. ( Porter, 1999 ) .
A new BM can so be seen as a strategic invention.
Indeed, the attack in footings of BM requires the director to understand the concern value of its web by placing the different stakeholders involved in the creative activity of value and manners of administration in topographic point to work a resource.
Creativity generated by believing in footings of BM should non consistently associate this construct to one field.
Alternatively, it must attach to any strategic thought and non be limited to emerging activities. Indeed, nil prevents its mobilisation in mature industries where directors wish to alter their beginnings of income ( Brandenburger & A ; Nalebluff, 1997 ) .
Linder and Cantrell ( 2001 ) defend the fact that the BM is non merely for specialized in web companies. Indeed, many writers consider that Business Model is for this type of companies and “ existent ” companies have schemes. They are complementary: a Business Model is non a permutation of the scheme and conversely. The BM can be considered as day-to-day steering the house and the scheme is more on a long-run facet ( Timmers, 1998 ) .
The scheme integrates tendencies and the placement on the market and besides establishes a construction to do net income in a changing environment. For this writer, the BM can easy be changed based on market developments and new chances bespeaking by the scheme.
D’un point de vue plus theorique, le construct de BM presente plusieurs interets. Tout d’abord, Illinois est parcimonieux et peut se definir de facon precise, notamment par resonance a celui de strategie. Ensuite, Illinois est generalisable. Issu, comme nous l’avons souligne , de la vague Internet, le construct est aujourd’hui mobilise dans des secteurs plus traditionnels. Il n’est donc pas l’apanage diethylstilbestrols seuls e-business. Enfin, le troisieme interet theorique du construct est de fournir une vision renouvelee de certaines problematiques ou impressions utilisees en strategie. La impression de client se definit ainsi dans notre approche par toute administration ou individu qui fournit a l’entreprise focale un revenu et non plus uniquement comme celui qui consomme lupus erythematosus produit ou service de l’entreprise. Une approche BM permet egalement de rendre compte de la valeur captee par l’entreprise et simplifie lupus erythematosus dilemme frequemment pose par La differentiation entre valeur generee et valeur captee par l’entreprise ( Brechet et Desreumaux, 2001 ) . Si l’on retient La definition de la valeur de Porter ( la valeur se mesure par lupus erythematosus revenu ) , on considere alors que le revenu d’une entreprise correspond a la valeur qu’elle a captee ( Schema 2. ) . De plus, le BM permet egalement d’associer dans la reflexion choix strategiques, beginnings de revenus et construction de couts. Ainsi, une place de specialiste dans un systeme de valeur ( Porter, 1985 ) permet d’avoir besoin de moins de revenus pour La protagonist et de mieux valoriser une competence centrale. Cependant, elle limite aussi du meme putsch les gisements de revenus. Ainsi, si l’integration verticale est privilegiee dans differentes theories comme un moyen d’accroitre le pouvoir de negociation ( Porter, 1980 ) ou de reduire les couts de dealing dans certaines conditions ( Williamson, 1975, 1985 ) , c’est aussi un moyen de multiplier lupus erythematosuss gisements de revenus.
New Business Models
Development of Business Models
The Business Model of an administration has brought a alteration during his life rhythm.
To last and to thrive, a company has to drive the alteration and non digest them to be able to maintain a strong place sing the competition.
In a similar position, the clip tempo is recommended by Eisenhardt et Al ( 1998 ) .
It is for companies runing in unstable environments do non wait until events occur ( motion of a rival, alteration in client behaviour, etc. ) but to plan alterations – particularly in footings of merchandises – specifying the rate at which they must happen. This thought was peculiarly integrated by Benavent and Verstraete ( 2000 ) in their consideration of the BM.
Emergence of new Business Models
Applegate ( 1999 ) defines five stairss leting companies to analyze the outgrowth of new Business Models:
– Analysing bing BM to better understand them,
– Identifying possible development trails and imaginable new BM
– Ranking of these possibilities in precedence order ( rating of the construct, capacity and resources required, proposition of value )
– Use of the old measure to develop impulsive tools public presentation,
– Revision of the scheme and the concern program
She suggests these stairss but does non give any illustrations or farther accounts.
Among influencing factors, the most of import, harmonizing to Weill and Vitale ( 2002 ) are the function of engineering in the execution of concern procedures.
The influence of ICT on the development of these procedures has besides been highlighted by Tapscott ( 2004 ) . They touch the deep construction of concern theoretical accounts and do them germinate. Strategy, BM and engineering are inseparable. The best theoretical accounts are based on the detainment by the companies of the most efficient engineerings.
The combination of information engineering helps to find which BM remembers for the hereafter. ( Weill and Vitale, 2002 ) .
They can be used extensively to better bit by bit the full value concatenation, procedures and hence to polish the BM.
Emergence of the digital engineering
Different factors are quoted in the literature that can perchance act upon the development of the Business Model. The chief 1 seems to be the environment which applies changeless force per unit area on BM of companies:
– Technologic alterations
– Competitive development
– Demand alterations
– Sociable and legal developments